Resonant Vibration Department Research - Music Therapy Research -
Acoustic Levitation Tracy V. Wilson
Unless you travel into the vacuum of space, sound is all around you every day. But most of the time, you probably don't think of it as a physical presence. You hear sounds; you don't touch them. The only exceptions may be loud nightclubs, cars with window-rattling speakers and ultrasound machines that pulverize kidney stones. But even then, you most likely don't think of what you feel as sound itself, but as the vibrations that sound creates in other objects.
The idea that something so intangible can lift objects can seem unbelievable, but it's a real phenomenon. Acoustic levitation takes advantage of the properties of sound to cause solids, liquids and heavy gases to float. The process can take place in normal or reduced gravity. In other words, sound can levitate objects on Earth or in gas-filled enclosures in space.
To understand how acoustic levitation works, you first need to know a little about gravity, air and sound. First, gravity is a force that causes objects to attract one another. The simplest way to understand gravity is through Isaac Newton's law of universal gravitation. This law states that every particle in the universe attracts every other particle. The more massive an object is, the more strongly it attracts other objects. The closer objects are, the more strongly they attract each other. An enormous object, like the Earth, easily attracts objects that are close to it, like apples hanging from trees. Scientists haven't decided exactly what causes this attraction, but they believe it exists everywhere in the universe.
Second, air is a fluid that behaves essentially the same way liquids do. Like liquids, air is made of microscopic particles that move in relation to one another. Air also moves like water does -- in fact, some aerodynamic tests take place underwater instead of in the air. The particles in gasses, like the ones that make up air, are simply farther apart and move faster than the particles in liquids.
Third, sound is a vibration that travels through a medium, like a gas, a liquid or a solid object. A sound's source is an object that moves or changes shape very rapidly. For example, if you strike a bell, the bell vibrates in the air. As one side of the bell moves out, it pushes the air molecules next to it, increasing the pressure in that region of the air. This area of higher pressure is a compression. As the side of the bell moves back in, it pulls the molecules apart, creating a lower-pressure region called a rarefaction. The bell then repeats the process, creating a repeating series of compressions and rarefactions. Each repetition is one wavelength of the sound wave.
The sound wave travels as the moving molecules push and pull the molecules around them. Each molecule moves the one next to it in turn. Without this movement of molecules, the sound could not travel, which is why there is no sound in a vacuum.
Acoustic levitation uses sound traveling through a fluid -- usually a gas -- to balance the force of gravity. On Earth, this can cause objects and materials to hover unsupported in the air. In space, it can hold objects steady so they don't move or drift.
The process relies on of the properties of sound waves, especially intense sound waves. We'll look at how sound waves become capable of lifting objects in the next section.
The Physics of Sound Levitation
A basic acoustic levitator has two main parts -- a transducer, which is a vibrating surface that makes sound, and a reflector. Often, the transducer and reflector have concave surfaces to help focus the sound. A sound wave travels away from the transducer and bounces off the reflector. Three basic properties of this traveling, reflecting wave help it to suspend objects in midair.
First, the wave, like all sound, is a longitudinal pressure wave. In a longitudinal wave, movement of the points in the wave is parallel to the direction the wave travels. It's the kind of motion you'd see if you pushed and pulled one end of a stretched Slinky. Most illustrations, though, depict sound as a transverse wave, which is what you would see if you rapidly moved one end of the Slinky up and down. This is simply because transverse waves are easier to visualize than longitudinal waves.
Second, the wave can bounce off of surfaces. It follows the law of reflection, which states that the angle of incidence -- the angle at which something strikes a surface -- equals the angle of reflection -- the angle at which it leaves the surface. In other words, a sound wave bounces off a surface at the same angle at which it hits the surface. A sound wave that hits a surface head-on at a 90 degree angle will reflect straight back off at the same angle. The easiest way to understand wave reflection is to imagine a Slinky that is attached to a surface at one end. If you picked up the free end of the Slinky and moved it rapidly up and then down, a wave would travel the length of the spring. Once it reached the fixed end of the spring, it would reflect off of the surface and travel back toward you. The same thing happens if you push and pull one end of the spring, creating a longitudinal wave.
Finally, when a sound wave reflects off of a surface, the interaction between its compressions and rarefactions causes interference. Compressions that meet other compressions amplify one another, and compressions that meet rarefactions balance one another out. Sometimes, the reflection and interference can combine to create a standing wave. Standing waves appear to shift back and forth or vibrate in segments rather than travel from place to place. This illusion of stillness is what gives standing waves their name.
Standing sound waves have defined nodes, or areas of minimum pressure, and antinodes, or areas of maximum pressure. A standing wave's nodes are at the heart of acoustic levitation. Imagine a river with rocks and rapids. The water is calm in some parts of the river, and it is turbulent in others. Floating debris and foam collect in calm portions of the river. In order for a floating object to stay still in a fast-moving part of the river, it would need to be anchored or propelled against the flow of the water. This is essentially what an acoustic levitator does, using sound moving through a gas in place of water.
By placing a reflector the right distance away from a transducer, the acoustic levitator creates a standing wave. When the orientation of the wave is parallel to the pull of gravity, portions of the standing wave have a constant downward pressure and others have a constant upward pressure. The nodes have very little pressure.
In space, where there is little gravity, floating particles collect in the standing wave's nodes, which are calm and still. On Earth, objects collect just below the nodes, where the acoustic radiation pressure, or the amount of pressure that a sound wave can exert on a surface, balances the pull of gravity, depending on the influence of gravity.
It takes more than just ordinary sound waves to supply this amount of pressure. We'll look at what's special about the sound waves in an acoustic levitator in the next section.
Nonlinear Sound and Acoustic Levitation
Ordinary standing waves can be relatively powerful. For example, a standing wave in an air duct can cause dust to collect in a pattern corresponding to the wave's nodes. A standing wave reverberating through a room can cause objects in its path to vibrate. Low-frequency standing waves can also cause people to feel nervous or disoriented -- in some cases, researchers find them in buildings people report to be haunted.
But these feats are small potatoes compared to acoustic levitation. It takes far less effort to influence where dust settles or to shatter a glass than it takes to lift objects from the ground. Ordinary sound waves are limited by their linear nature. Increasing the amplitude of the wave causes the sound to be louder, but it doesn't affect the shape of the wave form or cause it to be much more physically powerful.
However, extremely intense sounds -- like sounds that are physically painful to human ears -- are usually nonlinear. They can cause disproportionately large responses in the substances they travel through. Some nonlinear affects include:
* Distorted wave forms
* Shock waves, like sonic booms
* Acoustic streaming, or the constant flow of the fluid the wave travels through
* Acoustic saturation, or the point at which the matter can no longer absorb any more energy from the sound wave
Nonlinear acoustics is a complex field, and the physical phenomena that cause these effects can be difficult to understand. But in general, nonlinear affects can combine to make an intense sound far more powerful than a quieter one. It is because of these affects that a wave's acoustic radiation pressure can become strong enough to balance the pull of gravity. Intense sound is central to acoustic levitation -- the transducers in many levitators produce sounds in excess of 150 decibels (dB). Ordinary conversation is about 60 dB, and a loud nightclub is closer to 110 dB.
Other Uses for Nonlinear Sound
Several medical procedures rely on nonlinear acoustics. For example, ultrasound imaging uses nonlinear effects to allow doctors to examine babies in the womb or view internal organs. High-intensity ultrasound waves can also pulverize kidney stones, cauterize internal injuries and destroy tumors.
* The distance between the transducer and the reflector must be a multiple of half of the wavelength of the sound the transducer produces. This produces a wave with stable nodes and antinodes. Some waves can produce several usable nodes, but the ones nearest the transducer and reflector usually not suitable for levitating objects. This is because the waves create a pressure zone close to the reflective surfaces.
* In a microgravity environment, such as outer space, the stable areas within the nodes must be large enough to support the floating object. On Earth, the high-pressure areas just below the node must be large enough as well. For this reason, the object being levitated should measure between one third and half of the wavelength of the sound. Objects larger than two thirds of the sound's wavelength are too large to be levitated -- the field isn't big enough to support them. The higher the frequency of the sound, the smaller the diameter of the objects it's possible to levitate.
* Objects that are the right size to levitate must also be of the right mass. In other words, scientists must evaluate the density of the object and determine whether the sound wave can produce enough pressure to counteract the pull of gravity on it.
* Drops of liquid being levitated must have a suitable Bond number, which is a ratio that describes the liquid's surface tension, density and size in the context of gravity and the surrounding fluid. If the Bond number is too low, the drop will burst.
* The intensity of the sound must not overwhelm the surface tension of liquid droplets being levitated. If the sound field is too intense, the drop will flatten into a donut and then burst.
This might sound like a lot of work required to suspend small objects a few centimeters off of a surface. Levitating small objects -- or even small animals -- a short distance might also sound like a relatively useless practice. However, acoustic levitation has several uses, both on the ground and in outer space. Here are a few:
* Manufacturing very small electronic devices and microchips often involves robots or complex machinery. Acoustic levitators can perform the same task by manipulating sound. For example, levitated molten materials will gradually cool and harden, and in a properly tuned field of sound, the resulting solid object is a perfect sphere. Similarly, a correctly shaped field can force plastics to deposit and harden only on the correct areas of a microchip.
* Some materials are corrosive or otherwise react with ordinary containers used during chemical analysis. Researchers can suspend these materials in an acoustic field to study them without the risk of contamination from or destruction of containers.
* The study of foam physics has a big obstacle -- gravity. Gravity pulls the liquid downward from foam, drying and destroying it. Researchers can contain foam with in acoustic fields to study it in space, without the interference of gravity. This can lead to a better understanding of how foam performs tasks like cleaning ocean water.
Researchers continue to develop new setups for levitation systems and new applications for acoustic levitation. To learn more about their research, sound and related topics, check out the links on the next page.
Other Levitator Setups
Although a levitator with one transducer and one reflector can suspend objects, some setups can increase stability or allow movement. For example, some levitators have three pairs of transducers and reflectors, which are positioned along the X, Y and Z axes. Others have one large transmitter and one small, movable reflector; the suspended object moves when the reflector moves.
See “Vimana” flying machines and Antigravitational Transportation.
How to make a simple Cymatics device.
You can make your own cymatics device in 3 simple steps, using materials that shouldn't cost more than €20. I call this version of a cymatics device a "Cymatics Sounder."
What is a Cymatics Sounder?
If you are not familiar with what a cymatics device is, it is a device for making sound waves visible. This particular cymatics device is generally called a "tonascope" and has been used to help deaf people learn how to speak. I call mine a "Cymatics Sounder" because it's easier to say. There are many ways to make one, after several experiments, this is by far the fastest and simplest way to make a cymatics device of any kind that I have come up with.
Why would you want to make one?
A Cymatics Sounder can be used to make visible patterns using only your voice. It will actually show you what the sound of your voice looks like. When you sing into a cymatics device you can alter both the amplitude and tone of your voice and see different patterns of varying complexity arise in from of your eyes. It's a lot of fun, and really amazing to experience. (See below to learn more about cymatics in science and history).
What you will need for your Cymatics Sounder:
1. A PVC pipe "elbow," with a 45 degree angle (looks like a check-mark).
2. A length of PVC pipe, preferably about 2" in diameter, cut to the right length for you.
3. 3-4 black (or other dark colored) balloons
4. Some rubber bands
5. Table salt (that means plain old salt)
Where and how to get your supplies:
1. PVC elbow:
The hardware or lumber store or any home-supply store is a good place to get your PVC. First you want to find a PVC elbow shaped like a "v" (or a checkmark) that has one part going straight up and down, and another part going out at a 45 degree angle. The up and down part should be about 6 inches across and the angled part ideally should be about 2" in diameter. *NOTE: If you can only find an elbow with both parts the same size of 6 inches wide, that is ok, see note at bottom of the next step).
2. PVC Pipe: Now you want to look for some pipe about 2" in diameter (wide) and ask someone there to cut it for you. The length you cut it to depends on how tall you are. Here's how to see how long you want it cut to: Set the PVC elbow you found on the floor, with the straight, 6 inch part as the 'base' and the smaller angled part facing upward, like a checkmark. Then put the pipe you found into the part that is facing upward, so it makes a big checkmark shape. *NOTE: If you could only find an elbow piece with a larger (or other size) angled opening, just get the pipe that will fit right into it. 2 inch is best but you don't need it to make it work.
Stand next to the pipe and see where it naturally meets your mouth (since you will be blowing into it like a saxophone).Wherever it meets your mouth is where you want to have the length cut to. (For an adult probably at about 6 feet, for a ten year old, about 4 feet and so on).
3. Black balloons:
You can find these at craft stores, florists, and in any party section of a store, but I have found that florists have the biggest and nicest ones, which work best for a cymatics device. If you can't find any black balloons, any dark color like purple or blue will work too. Try to get the largest, heaviest quality they have, but almost anything will work.
4. Rubber bands:
Hobby stores, grocery stores, hardware stores, craft stores, department stores. About 3-5 inch size is best and get the thickest ones you can find. But again, almost anything will work.
How to build your Cymatics Sounder:
1. Set your PVC elbow piece on the floor, with the bigger end as a base and the angled part angled up. Now place the end of the PVC pipe firmly down into the angled part of the elbow (think of it as building a saxophone). The length of pipe should be going up an angle now and the other open end of the elbow should be facing straight up.
2. Cut the "neck" off a balloon at about 1 inch from the blowing end. (You have several balloons in case you need them, but you will only use one at a time). Now stretch the balloon tightly over the neck of the PVC elbow that is facing up (the 6 inch end without the pipe in it). You may need to do this a couple times to get it flat with no dimples or loose parts in the balloon surface. The balloon should be flat and facing upwards like a drumhead. The vibration of something on a membrane like this is how all tonascopes work.
3. Holding the balloon down over the PVC with one hand, get a rubber band and put it down over the balloon so it holds it on the PVC elbow. You should put about 5 or 6 rubber bands on it to make sure it doesn't pop off.
Now you are ready to 'play' your cymatics device and make sound visible!
How to play your Cymatics Sounder:
1. Hold it upright on the ground so the balloon covered end is facing up and level like a drum.
2. Sprinkle some salt on the surface of the balloon, just enough to lightly cover it over.
3. Now put your mouth up to the other end of the PVC pipe (as if it's a saxophone) and sing and hum! You will see the salt respond to your voice and start to make cymatics patterns like circles, ovals, and snake-like figures.
Hint: Making nice, loud "aaaaa" or "oooooo" or "eeeee" vowel sounds into the pipe will get the best cymatics designs to start with. You will get simple patterns and effects (like the salt just jumping off the surface) to start with. Then you will learn how to get more detailed and "clear" designs as you learn to play your Cymatics Sounder just by watching it.
Cymatics, the study of wave phenomena, is a science pioneered by Swiss medical doctor and natural scientist, Hans Jenny (1904-1972). For 14 years he conducted experiments animating inert powders, pastes, and liquids into life-like, flowing forms, which mirrored patterns found throughout nature, art and architecture.
All of these patterns were created using simple sine wave vibrations (pure tones) within the audible range. So what you see is a physical representation of vibration, or how sound manifests into form through the medium of various materials.
Dr. Jenny's methodology was meticulous, well documented, and totally repeatable. His fascinating body of work offers profound insights into both the physical sciences and esoteric philosophies. It illustrates the very principles which inspired the ancient Greek philosophers Heraclitus, Pythagoras and Plato, on down to Giordano Bruno and Johannes Kepler, the fathers of modern astronomy.
These cymatic images are truly awe-inspiring, not only for their visual beauty in portraying the inherent responsiveness of matter to sound, but also because they inspire a deep recognition that we, too, are part and parcel of this same complex and intricate vibrational matrix.
Hans Jenny was building on the earlier work of Ernest Chladni.
Ernest Chladni was a German physicist living in the eighteenth century. Chladni showed how sound waves create patterns in sand sprinkled on a vibrating metal plate. He clamped a round metal plate underneath its center and drew a violin bow vertically along the rim of the plate.
He found that different musical tones would cause the sand particles to move into geometric patterns resembling the mandalas used in eastern spiritual traditions. The shape, diameter, thickness, density and rigidity of the plate would determine the shape of the sand patterns.
Chladni found that when the plate was played by the bow certain areas of the plate would vibrate while other areas would not. The particles of sand moved from the vibrating areas of the plate to the non-vibrating areas.
When sand is scattered on the metal plate, see figure one far left, then notes of different frequencies are produced by bowing the edge of the plate at different places and holding the edge at others. In figure two from left to right we see the patterns formed when the bow created a frequency of 1200Hz, 880Hz and 2760Hz.
Hans Jenny spent years conducting experiments to discover the effects of sound waves on materials such as glycerine, mercury, gel, liquids, powders and iron filings. Jenny used modern technology to construct a 'Tonoscope', an instrument which would produce a picture of the patterns sound creates in these different materials.
Jenny would send electronically produced sound through oscillating crystals to vibrate the metal plate on which different materials were placed. Jenny called his study 'cymatics,' from the Greek word 'kyma' which means 'wave'.
Different sounds would produce different patterns. Low frequency sounds produced simple geometric shapes. As the sound frequency was increased these simple forms would break up and more complex patterns would appear.
Different tones would produce different shapes in the materials. The sound 'OH' would produce a perfect circle.
Jenny found that when the volume of the sound was increased this caused turbulence and eruptions in the materials. Iron filings when vibrated with sound would resemble mountain ranges forming or waves breaking. Many of the patterns created by the sound resembled the cell structures of plants and animals.
Jenny came to the conclusion that each individual cell generates its own sound, groups of cells also generate their own sounds, as do the organs of the body. These sounds are harmonically related to each other. Indeed the entire human body has its own sound made up of all the sounds of its cells, tissues and organs.
Cassini Images Bizarre Hexagon on Saturn March 27, 2007
Pasadena, Calif. -- An odd,
six-sided, honeycomb-shaped feature circling the entire north pole of Saturn
has captured the interest of scientists with NASA's Cassini mission.
NASA's Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft imaged the feature over two decades ago. The fact that it has appeared in Cassini images indicates that it is a long-lived feature. A second hexagon, significantly darker than the brighter historical feature, is also visible in the Cassini pictures. The spacecraft's visual and infrared mapping spectrometer is the first instrument to capture the entire hexagon feature in one image.
is a very strange feature, lying in a precise geometric fashion with six nearly
equally straight sides," said Kevin Baines, atmospheric expert and member
of Cassini's visual and infrared mapping spectrometer team at NASA's Jet
Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. "We've never seen anything like
this on any other planet. Indeed, Saturn's thick atmosphere where
circularly-shaped waves and convective cells dominate is perhaps the last place
you'd expect to see such a six-sided geometric figure, yet there it is."
The hexagon is similar to Earth's polar vortex, which has winds blowing in a circular pattern around the polar region. On Saturn, the vortex has a hexagonal rather than circular shape. The hexagon is nearly 25,000 kilometers (15,000 miles) across. Nearly four Earths could fit inside it.
The straight sides of the northern polar hexagon are each about 13,800 kilometers long. The entire structure rotates with a period of 10h 39 m 24s, the same period as that of the planet's radio emissions, which is assumed to be equal to the period of rotation of Saturn's interior. The hexagonal feature does not shift in longitude like the other clouds in the visible atmosphere.
Saturn's magnificent ring system -- a huge disc resembling an old
gramophone record -- turns out to share another property with the LP: it
constantly emits a melodic series of musical notes. The surprising discovery
was made by radio and plasma wave detectors on board the Cassini spacecraft as
it passed over Saturn's rings during its arrival at the planet in July.
The tones are emitted as radio waves. Don Gurnett of the University of Iowa says his team reduced their frequencies by a factor of five to bring them into the range of human hearing. Gurnett says he was "completely astonished" when he heard the musical notes. The tones are short, typically lasting between one and three seconds, and unlike the ethereal sliding tones associated with other cosmic processes, every one is quite distinct. The evidence suggests that each tone is produced by the impact of a meteoroid on the icy chunks that make up the rings.
Each hit, Gurnett says, creates a pulse of energy that is focused along the surface of a cone from the point of impact. By estimating the energy involved, he calculates that the impacting objects are about 1 centimetre across - although he cautions that his estimate could be out by as much as a factor of 10.
Some basic acoustics laws
How to calculate oscillation of a body into freqency:
The length of time a celestial body requires to rotate around its axis and to revolve around the sun, can be converted into sound (and color) by means of the law of the octave.
Any things that moves or oscillate has a frequency measured in a time unit, usually one second and is called Hertz after the German physicist. Frequency express the number of repetitions of a periodic phenomenon during a certain length of time. (A tuning fork that vibrates 272 times back and forth in one second, has a frequency at 272 Hertz (Hz.)).
Time is not a concept of its own, but a duration. Oscillation is a repetition of the same phenomenon, e.g. the movement of a string, the swing of a pendulum, or astronomical constellations such as a day or a year.
There is a simple relationship between the period of oscillation (the time it takes to move back and forth) and its frequency. It is an inverse proportion: the period = 1/ frequency; (or frequency = 1/ period.) It means that the reciprocal value of a period of time represents its frequency (in seconds).
Frequency range can be measured in a basic unit called octaves. In practice one can form an octave by multiply or divide a frequency with 2.
This interval is the very most outstanding division of sound and music and is recognized in all musical traditions through time on the globe. The division of the octave has been done differently depending of musical tradition, but all over the world in all times the octave has been recognized as the basic unit that constitute a beginning and an end.
Octave derived from Latin and means the eighth. It is the 8th step in the diatonic scale consisting of 7 tones, 5 full tones and 2 semi tones. The eighth tone in the diatonic scale, which is the most common in the world, complete the octave on a pitch, that in frequency is the double of the fundamental tone.
Graphically one could say that an octave express or represent a circle. Several octaves shapes a spiral where the same fundamental is above or below. The straight out mysterious about octaves is that tones an octave apart sounds similar though the frequency is the double or the half. They contain so to speak to the same family; from the same root, unfolding in the spectrum of frequencies. They have the same Chroma. The whole time double up the frequencies in the ascending mode or halve in descending mode.
Again we see the basic, universal division of one into two as we first refer to in the paragraph about the standing waves.
Just remember the awesome sight of the pregnant egg-cell dividing itself.
The law of octaves belong not only to the realm of sound but can be observed as manifesting itself though out Nature and above in astronomy.
Two tones an octave apart are perceived as having a kindred relationship - as being, in a sense, "the same note". This recognition of similarities for tones an octave apart is and was applying to any major musical culture all over the globe since the beginning of the history of man.
The sense of pitch associated with a tone has two different attributes: the frequency of the tone, the ”height”, and the chroma, which is a quality shared by all notes described by a particular letter. (Bachem 1950) Thus C2 and C3 are separated in pitch by an octave, they both have the same chroma - that associated with all C’s. They are in the same family.
In one interpretation of the pattern recognition theory of pitch, the brain searches for a distribution of peaks along the basilar membrane corresponding to a harmonic series of vibrations. On this basis, the fact that C2 and C3 evoke almost the same sensation can be readily understood.
The sound wave is a chain reaction where the molecules of air by elastic beats push the other molecules in the longitudinal direction quiet similar to a long train getting a push from a locomotive.
It is a longitudinal displacement of pressure and depressor in a molecular medium such as air or water initiated by an oscillator, the vibration source for the sound.
The sound waves shall not be mistaken as waves in water caused by e.g. a stone in a pond, though the picture appears to be alike.
Sound waves are longitudinal, back and forth. Water waves are transverse, the main movements are up and down.
Calculations of sound ratios
Another feature in the realm of sound is the exponential factor, because sound as many other physical events behaves exponentially - not in straight lines.
There are two ways to calculate ratios of frequencies:
1) One can work with the ratios as they are, and when adding two sound ratios one have to multiply; to subtract you have to divide, and to divide a sound ratio you have to take the square root.
A common example: in order to divide the octave into 12 equal parts as the case is for the Equal Temperament. You have to calculate the 12th. root of 2, (21/12) . If you want to divide the whole tone, 9/8, you have to take the square root of 9/8, or (9/8)½ = 3/2*2½ .
2) The other way, which makes the calculation more straight forward, is to convert the ratios into logarithmic unities such as cent or savarts, which makes the calculation of ratios more simple by adding, subtraction and dividing.
Savarts named after a French physicist and cents are logarithmic systems developed to make it easy to compare intervals on a linear scale instead of using fractals or frequencies ratios.
Savarts is calculated as the logarithm (base 10) of the frequency ratio and, for convenience, multiply with 1000. We shall then have an interval expressed in terms of a unit call savarts.
The logarithm of 2 being 0.3010... the interval of the octave is equal to 301 savarts.
Savarts is more exact than the widely used American system, cents, which by definition is based on the tempered scale of 1200 cents.
Cent is also a logarithmic unit, which make it easier to operate with pitch intervals or frequencies ratios, since the size of a pitch interval is proportional not to the frequency ratio, but to the logarithm of the frequency ratio.
It is a simple relationship: pitch interval (in octaves) = log2 (f2 : f1). Since there are chosen to have 1200 cents in an octave, this is equivalent to:
pitch interval (in cents) = 1200 * log2 (f2 : f). In practice, logarithms to base 10 (log10) are normally used.
Plucked strings exhibit transverse waves in a back and forth movements locally producing a pulse along the direction in which the wave itself travels with a speed depending of the mass of the string and its material but usually lower than airwaves. A good explanation is given by The University of New South Wales, Australia.
(The frequency of the string itself is the same as the frequency of the air waves. The wavelength is different due to the dissimilarity in speed.)
The lengths of the vibrating part of the string is inverse proportional to the frequencies. The period of oscillation = 1 / frequency. This is a important acoustic law, that applies to any conversion of period into frequencies. If you, e.g. divide an octave string with 2/3, the ratio of the sound will be 3/2 of an octave, a fifth.
To produce sounds a vibrating body, an oscillator, is needed.
An oscillator can be any kind of a vibrating body from an atom to an astronomical object, but since we here are working with musical sounds, we are referring to oscillators such as musical instruments or the human voice box, that produce standing waves or periodic waves in a system of resonators that enhances and amplify the tone and generates harmonics.
The heart and aorta formed a special resonant system when breathing is ceased. Then the heart beat seems to wait until the echo returns from the bifurcation (where the aorta forks out in the lower abdomen). Then the next heart beat sets in. In this synchronous way a resonant, standing wave of blood is established with a frequency about seven times a second. This harmonious mode requires for its sustenance a minimum amount of energy, which is an intelligent response from the body. In deep meditation a similar mode is established. It is interesting to notice that this mode of 7 Hz is closed to the Schumann resonance.
Standing waves are a kind of echo, that moves back and forth, since the waves are reflected between two solid points, basically, a hamper or fixed string. For wind instruments with an open end, the impedance (the resisters from the air) works in a similar manner. There are also closed pipes, that resonates a bit different.
When a fixed string is plucked, the potential energy is released in a transverse wave, that in a split second begins to displace a division of the string in different moving parts, where some points are not moving, which are called nodes.
How many nodes the string is divided into when it vibrates depends of the material, the tension, and especially how and where it is plucked or bowed ,etc, but here we try to get a general picture of the nature of standing waves in a plucked string.
When the potential energy is stopped in the fixed ends, the kinetic energy is at its maximum and continue in a 180° phase shift the opposite way. We have two waves with the same frequency and amplitude traveling in the opposite direction. Where the two waves add together or superpose, movements is cancel out and we have moving less nodes. That occur a half wavelength apart and constitute the standing waves.
The repeating shifts between potential and kinetic energy in a moving string draws ones attention to a similar pattern we can observe in a pendulum and its simple harmonic motion.
The numbers of nodes, the no moving points, in a standing wave, is equal to the number of harmonics or partials created in the standing wave.
The same pattern can be observed with fine sand on a metal plate in vibration by a bow. The standing waves automatically divide the length and width of the plate into an integral number of half wave-lengths. It is only then, a standing wave can be sustained. That pattern is the most energy effective form nature can provide. (A similar pattern is the rhythm entrainment, where random oscillation after a while begin to oscillate in unison).
Standing waves can not exist unless they divide their medium into an integral numbers of half waves with its nodes. A standing waves having a fractional wavelength can not be sustained.
The same standing waves pattern can be preformed in a 3 dimensional box too. This pattern will look just like a highly enlarged crystal, if we assume that the aggregated particles or grains in the box fluid are analogous to the atoms in a crystal.
The key word in standing waves is order. In short, by using sound we have introduced order where previously there was none.
Any vibrating body that is set in a standing, resonant motion, produce harmonics. For musical sounds the harmonics series is usually expressed as a arithmetical proportion:
1,1:2, 1:3, 1:4, 1:5, 1:6...1:n.
The first and 2nd harmonics are separated by an octave, frequency ratio 2:1, the 2nd and 3rd by a perfect fifth (3:2), the 3rd and 4th by a perfect fourth (4:3), and 4th and 5th by a major third (5:4), and the 5th and the 6th by a minor third (6:5), and so on.
A simple Harmonic motion is typified by the motion of a pendulum and is sinusoidal in time and demonstrate a single resonant frequency.
The formula for The Harmonic Series is the sum, å 1/n = 1 + ½ + 1/3 + ¼ + 1/5 +1/6 +…diverges to infinity, when n goes from 1 to infinity.
Harmonics of the string
Since the Harmonic Series is so important in the construction of musical scales, another common way to express the harmonics is a simple multiplication by whole numbers: the fundamental f, then 2f, 3f, 4f, 5f....nf harmonic.
How Nature performed such a mathematical division, an arithmetic progression is beyond my apprehension, but it is surely a mighty prominent and well proofed law. Intuitively I feel that the number 2 or its inversion ½ is the mega number. Remember the integer numbers of ½ waves (nodes) in the standing wave.
The harmonic series is special because any combination of its vibrations produces a periodic or repeated vibration at the fundamental frequency.
Harmonics of the string
Imagine an idealized stretched string with fixed ends vibrating the first 4 modes of the standing waves. This can be expressed as the relationship between wavelength, speed and frequency, a basic formula where the wavelength is inversely proportional to the frequency when speed is a constant (k) since it is the same string:
Let's work out the relationships among the frequencies of these modes. For a wave, the frequency is the ratio of the speed of the wave to the length of the wave: f = k/wavelength. Compared to the string length L, you can see that these waves have lengths 2L, L, 2L/3, L/2. We could write this as 2L/n, where n is the number of the harmonic.
The fundamental or first mode has frequency f1 = k/wavelength = k/2L,
The second harmonic has frequency f2 = k/wavelength = 2k/2L = 2f1
The third harmonic has frequency f3 = k/wavelength = 3k/2L = 3f1,
The fourth harmonic has frequency f4 = v/wavelength = 4k/2L = 4f1, and, to generalize, The nth harmonic has frequency fn = k/wavelength = nk/2L = nf1.
All waves in a string travel with the same speed, so these waves with different wavelengths have different frequencies as shown. The mode with the lowest frequency (f1) is called the fundamental. Note that the nth mode has frequency n times that of the fundamental. All of the modes (and the sounds they produce) are called the harmonics of the string. The frequencies f, 2f, 3f, 4f etc are called the harmonic series.
The diagram below displays the harmonics in a span of 5 octaves, where the fundamental is C with the frequency of 32 Hz. As the octaves progress the numberes of new harmonics increase with the factor of 2.
Chladni resonant Lines on a Violin
In the Creation of Musical Scales, part 1 & 2, the general features of harmonics has been described. The aim of this portion is devoted to the spiritual and the psychological power of harmonics as well as the physical well being.
Alfred Tomatis is a French physician and specialist in otolaryngology, who has been working with understanding the function of the human ear and the importance of listening for forty-five years. In this connection we will look at his discoveries of sound, which ”charge” the listener. Tomatis found that sounds that contain high frequency harmonics, such as those found in Gregorian chants, are extremely beneficial. It is these high frequencies around 8000 Hz, which are capable of ”charging” the central nervous system and the cortex of the brain. In many of the sacred chants of the different tradition, the main out put of high frequency harmonics are dominant, which offer stimulation to the brain.
Tomatis himself discovered this when he was called to help a Benedictine monastery, where the monks were suffering of fatigued and depression. He found out, that they usually six to eight hours of chanting - due to a new decree - has been ceased, and within a short period of time the monks was unable to perform their many duties. WhenTomatis re-established their daily chanting, the monks were soon able to continue their rigorous schedule of work and prayers.
For Tomatis, a major aspect of the therapeutic affects of vocal harmonics lies in the conduction of the bones, which are stimulated by resonance of around 2000 Hz. He says:
”The sound produced is not in the mouth, not in the body, but, in fact, in the bones. It is all the bones in the body which are singing and it is like a vibrator exciting the walls of the church, which also sing.”
Bone conduction’s actually amplifies the sound through resonance of the cranium and the skull. According to Tomatis, bone conduction stimulates the stapes muscle of the ear, which he believes is the key to stimulating and charging the brain. Tomatis himself manages with a small amount of sleep, less than four hours a night. He attributes this to his listening to sound, which are rich in high harmonics.
Tomatis has described a phenomenon, which has been called ”The Tomatis Effect”, that states that the voice can only create and duplicate those sounds, which the ear is able to hear. This means that until you are able to hear various overtones, you will not be able to create them in your voice.
Listening is undoubtedly a key, not only in obtaining the ability of creating vocal harmonies and improvement of the voice, but of understanding aspects of other levels of consciousness. In the Hindu tradition there is a great awareness of listening as a tool for enhanced consciousness. The art of listening to the outer and inner sound.
Inner and outer sound
In the Vedic language of Sanskrit, there is a differentiation between inner and outer sound. There is audible sound, called ”ahata”, or struck sound and is the result of vibration on the physical plane. There is also the ”anahata”, the inaudible, inner sound which are not the result of some physical vibration, but rather are ”unstuck” which can ridden like a flying horse to other planes of existence in meditation.
The American throat singer, Jonathan Goldman, formulates an interesting statement in the book," Healing Sounds”, the power of harmonics:
”I have always wondered if harmonics might not somehow be the bridge between ”ahata” and ”anahata”, the struck and the unstuck sound, but the harmonics which are created do not occur themselves from having been physically struck. Perhaps they are the bridge between the physical and the meta-physical.” (p.78)
Pir Vilayat Khan, head of the Sufi Order of the West, said that the overtones can be followed with the conscious mind and used as ”Jacob’s Ladder” to climb to other planes of existence.
Sound as a carrier wave of consciousness
If we for a moment give up the common notion about sound as air waves the ear can hear, and extend it to a member of the universal family of vibrations, we will open up for the Hermetic Principles that tell us about the Universe is nothing more or less than an endless number of vibrations and rhythms from the atoms to the stars.
Hermes Trismegistus, Thrice Great Hermes, the scribe of the Gods, as the ancient Greeks named the mystical Egyptian God Thoth, was said to create by the sound of his voice alone. The sacred writings of the ancient mystery Schools over the world, were attributed to him as mediator of divinely revealed wisdom. In thus center of learning the knowledge of sound was a highly refined since based upon an understanding of vibration as the primary causative form of the universe. While there are many mystical and spiritual paths, the Principles laid out by (the post atlantian?) Hermes Thoth seem to be incorporated in all of these paths. There were Seven Principles upon which the entire Hermetic Philosophy was based. Describe in ”The Kyballium: a study of Hermetic Philosophy” these are:
1. The principle of Mentalisme: "All is mind"
2. The principle of correspondence: "As Above, so Below".
3. The principle of Vibration:" All is in vibration".
4. The principle of Polarity: " Everything is dual".
5. The principle of Rhythm: " Everything flows".
6. The principle of Cause and Effect: " Everything happens according to Law".
7. The principle of Gender: " Everything has its Masculine and Feminine Principles"
Every organ, bone and tissue in the human body has its own separate resonant frequency. Together they made up a composite frequency, a harmonic that is your own personal vibratory signature. This signature encircle the whole body with a field, which some gifted people can see as an aura, and can be recorded by means of Kirlian photography.
Just as it is possible to set an object into its own natural vibratory state through resonance, so it is possible to restore the natural motion of an object, that may be out of tune or in disharmony. We call this disease. When disease sets in, a different sound pattern is established in that part of the body which is not vibrating in harmony. Therefore, it is possible, through use of externally created sound that is projected into the diseased area, to reintroduce the correct harmonic pattern.
The different rhythms of the body may also be changed through sound. This is known as entrainment and involves the ability of the more powerful rhythmic vibrations of one object to change the less powerful rhythmic vibration of another object and cause them to synchronize their rhythms with the first object. Through sound, especially chanting or overtone singing, it is possible to change the rhythmic pattern of our brain waves, as well as our heart beat and respiration.
Different brain wave rates have been equated to different state of consciousness. There are four basic categories of brain waves:
1. Beta waves, from 14 to 20 Hz, which are found in our normal waking state of mind.
2. Alpha waves, from 8 to 13 Hz, which occur when we daydream or meditate.
3. Theta waves, from 4 to 7 Hz, which are found in states of deep meditation and sleep, as well in shamanic activity.
4. Delta waves, from 0,5 to 3 Hz, which occur in deep sleep and have been found in very propound states of meditation and healing.
The use of music in sacred ceremonies and shamanic rituals has occurred since ancient times. The changing of these rates creates change in consciousness.
In our age of science it has been verified that sound can be used to effect and change our brain waves. In The Sound of Silence, I mentioned the American engineer, Robert Monroe, who has written books about his out of body experiences and produced sound tapes for the purpose of synchronizing the two brain hemispheres in order to create an altered state where out of body or similar experience can emerge. (I have tested some of these tapes myself, but I have to admit that I came in a state of flying - though not out of my body. Maybe my intend was not strong enough!)
The changing of using resonance and entrainment are the fundamental concepts behind the use of sound to heal and transform. They are found in every practice that uses sound, regardless of tradition, belief system or culture.
The psychic Edgar Cayce predicted, that sound would be the medicine of the future. I surely pray to that and the future is here. Within the last decades, however, the use of sound as a healing modality is coming more into focus in both the scientific and the medical communities. There now exist organizations such as the International Society for Music in Medicine and the Arts Medicine Association, which draw together doctors, scientists and other working with sound as a therapeutic tool.
”Sound is a carrier wave of consciousness”
This means that depending upon where an individual’s awareness is placed when he/she creates a certain sound, the sound will carry information on that state to the person receiving it. It is the intent or the purpose behind the sound, that matters. With the word intent, we are really talking about the consciousness of the sound being created. This encompasses the overall state of the person making the sound and involves the physical, mental, emotional and spiritual aspects of that person.
The initial understanding of intention involves our conscious mind, actually our whole being. A more profound understanding of intent involves what may be understood as alignment with the purpose of our Higher Selves, or the Divine Will. That is to be one with the Universal Spirit. It is that aspect of consciousness that is able to align with the sacred energy of sound.
It is ”Thy will”, not ”my will”.
When we have reached this level of being, our intent is to become a vehicle for the sacred sound and we are – maybe - able to by-pass the lesser aspect of one self which is selfish, inharmonious and unable to surrender to the Universal Will or God.
For most people, the initial understanding of intent is a major tumbling block in using sound as a transformational and therapeutic tool, for most of us, including healers, has not reached such a being and have never created sound with conscious awareness and purpose. Maybe in our intent to be a vehicle for our Supreme Creator, the tumbling block in a moment of grace becomes a stepping stone and in that moment we are One with our Creator and therefore are able to re-create and heal.
The concept of intent relates to the first Hermetic Principle that All is Mind, for intent stems from the mind of the Creator of sound. All is vibrations and rhythm. The key is the level of being, the degree of consciousness, the development of the mind, the purity of emotions, the level of attention that forms the intent or visualization.
Resonance is the basis of every sound therapy that I have examined. As you may recall, resonance is the basic vibratory rate of an object. Everything in the universe is in a state of vibration. This includes the human body. Every organ, bone, tissue and other part of the body has a healthy resonant frequency. When that frequency alters, that part of the body vibrates out of harmony and this is what is termed disease. If it were possible to determine the correct resonant frequency for a healthy organ and then project it into that part which is diseased, the organ should return to its normal frequency and a healing should occur.
Dr. Hans Jenny, a Swiss scientist, spent ten years of his life observing and photographing the effects of sound upon inorganic matter. He would put water and other liquids, plastics, paste and dust on steel plates and then vibrate these plates with different frequencies. Much of this work was originally inspired by the work of Ernst Chaldni, an eighteenth-century scientist who put grains of sand on glass and vibrated them with a violin bow. The sand would take on the most beautiful and symmetrical shapes. The experiments of Jenny took this understanding of the relationship between sound and form a quantum leap ahead.
Dr. Jenny spent thousands of hours experimenting with the effects of different frequencies upon the different inorganic substances he was using. Within the hundreds of photo- graphs which he and his staff took are pictures that look like starfish, human organs, microscopic bacteria and underwater life. In reality, these shapes are nothing more or less than lifeless mounds of plastic, dust and other inorganic material that had been exposed to sound.
Cymatics is the name which Dr. Jenny gave to his work. The name comes from the Greek kyma, a word which means wave. Cymatics is the study of wave-form phenomena. It is proof positive that sound has the ability of creating form. Once they are exposed to sound waves, the inanimate blobs of liquid, pastes, and other materials in Dr. Jenny's experiments begin to undulate and move. Slowly as the sound continues to affect them, they begin to take form. No longer shapeless blobs, these forms pulse and vibrate with the sounds that course through them, looking for all the world like living breathing creations. They are, however, not alive, but merely assume the features of life through the extraordinary power of sound. Once the sound is stopped, these shapes cease and the inorganic creations resume their shape as formless blobs.
According to Dr. Jenny, harmonics and harmonious patterns are interrelated. The intervals created by the frequencies and their harmonics were responsible for giving shape to the different substances with which Dr. Jenny experimented.
Dr. Peter Guy Manners
Dr. Manners is the creator of cymatic therapy which utilizes the Cymatic Instrument. For over twenty years, he has been treating various illnesses with sound. Working under the premise that disease is an 'out of tuneless' of some aspect of the body, Dr. Manners has correlated different harmonic frequencies, which are the healthy resonant frequencies of different parts of the body. He states:
”A healthy organ will have its molecules working together in a harmonious relationship with each other and will all be of the same pattern. If different sound patterns enter into the organ, the harmonious re1ationship could be upset. If these frequencies are weak in their vibration, they will be overcome by the stronger vibrations of the native ones. If the foreign ones prove to be the stronger on the other hand, they may establish their disharmonious pattern in the organ, bone, tissue, etc. and this is what we call disease.
If, therefore a treatment contains a harmonic frequency pattern which will reinforce the organs, the vibrations of the intruder will be neutralized and the correct pattern for that organ re-established. This should constitute a curative reaction”.
The Cymatics Instrument is composed of a portable computer which is about briefcase size and a sound generator which resembles a hammer-like vibrator.
They are electronically created and are really single tones. Yet they are harmonics of the calibrated frequency of the human body. They are usually octaves of this frequency, brought up many, many times in order to put the sound into the audible level, or brought down many, many times. Nevertheless, as tones that are octaves of a tone (whether this fundamental is in the ELF range or ultra-sonic), these tones can technically be called 'harmonics'.
Radionics works with the premise that all matter radiates energy. This energy, which is not simply 'magnetic' or 'electric', operates at very subtle and refined levels of vibration. Using devices such as pendulums which seem to swing back and forth in response to this energy, radionic practitioners have been able to determine frequencies for various parts of the body.
THE LAMBDOMA AND HEALING
Lambdoma Diagram also called 'The Pythagorean Table' or the 'Lambdoma' has been the subject of much discourse among scientists, The Lambdoma is credited with having been discovered by Pythagoras and was passed on by the neo-Pythagorean Iamblichus. The Lambdoma is an ancient musical mathematical theory which relates music to ratios. Mathematicians and scientists have studied the Lambdoma since its discovery. It is said to hold the many esoteric secrets of the relationship between matter and spirit, including being a numerical representation of the World Soul.
The Lambdoma is composed of two series, One represents the division of a string which indicates frequencies. The other series represents the multiplication of it or the harmonic series.
Kayser and the Larnbdoma
Barbara Hero's Lambdoma frequencies
Another frequency-based healing modality that utilizes harmonics is Barbara Hero's Lambdoma frequencies.
The use of the voice to balance and align chakras has been part of Hindu Ayurvedic medicine for thousands of years. This application of sound is usually practiced through recitation of mantras. However, there are in the West developed systems using harmonically related vocal sounds which also should work on the chakras. There are differences but basically the seven chakras correspond with sound and color in this way:
7. The CROWN chakra or HEAD chakra is positioned at the top of the head. It is associated with cosmic awareness, highest spirituality, and complete integration with Source.
VIOLET is the color of the crown chakra and the musical note is B. - 123.47 Hz (the note B is also called H)
6. The THIRD EYE chakra is located in the center of the forehead. This chakra is also called the AJNA center. It is associated with intuition, understanding, visualization, and inner vision.
DARK INDIGO BLUE is the color of the third eye chakra and the musical note is A. - 110.00 Hz
5. The THROAT chakra is positioned in the base of throat. It is associated with communication, expression and speaking one's truth.
AZURE BLUE is the color of the throat chakra and the musical note is G. - 98.00
4. The HEART chakra is positioned in the center of the chest, usually shown to be even with the nipple line.
The heart is associated with compassion, friendship, empathy and the ability to give and receive love.
GREEN is the color of the heart chakra and the musical note is F. - 87.31 Hz
( Sometimes the heart chakra is shown as pink, especially in relation to sending love out from the heart. )
3. The SOLAR PLEXUS chakra or THIRD chakra is located midway between the
end of the breastbone and the navel. It is associated with issues of personal
emotions (especially blocked emotions), passion for living, and the ability to protect oneself from being the target of negative or aggressive emotions.
YELLOW is the color of the solar plexus chakra and the musical note is E. - 82.41 Hz
2. The SACRAL chakra, also called the SECOND chakra or the SEXUAL chakra, is positioned in the area between the navel and the pubic bone. Depending on which sources you read, it can be shown to be centered on the navel itself or to be aligned with the sexual organs - ovaries in women and testes in men. It is associated with creativity, sexuality, relationship, and reproduction.
ORANGE. is the color of the sacral or second chakra and the musical note is D. - 73.42 Hz
1. The ROOT chakra, also called the FIRST or BASE chakra, is located at the base of the spine. It is associated with issues of survival, drive, ambition, grounding one's energy in the physical dimension, your life forces, and balancing experiences that create "fight or flight".
RED is the color of the root chakra and the musical note is C. - 65.41 Hz
Stockhausen and Resonation of the Brain
Another potential healing use of harmonics involves the resonation of the brain with these sounds. Many people report being aware of vibrations in their heads when they create vocal harmonics. Sometimes they see light when their eyes are closed. Others indicate they can actually feel different parts of their brain being resonated by the harmonics.
Stockhausen was the first to compose music created entirely for overtone singers. His influence in the growth of vocal harmonics has been great. Among his students were British overtone singer, Jill Purce, and German overtone singer, Michael Vetter.
”You will hear my work Stimmung as one seventy-five minutes long chord. It never changes.There are only partials or natural harmonics on a fundamental, the fundamental itself isn't there. The second, the third, fourth, fifth, seventh and ninth harmonics and nothing but that ... The singers needed six months just in order to learn precisely how to hit the ninth harmonic, or the tenth, eleventh, thirteenth, up to the twenty-fourth... It's a wonderful technique to learn because you become so conscious of the different parts of the skull which are vibrating, If you met the singers, you'd see how as human beings, they've changed. They're completely transformed now that they've sung it more than a hundred times since the World's Fair in Osaka”.
Stockhausen was able to observe physiological changes in the skulls of the singers he had trained to create vocal harmonics. The question remains: what exactly are these physiological changes? Are these changes restricted to the bones of the cranium or are there actual changes in the brain as well? If it is possible to resonate different portions of the brain through self-created sounds such as vocal harmonics, this seems a great deal safer than drilling a hole through the cranium and then attaching electrodes to the brain. This latter method is the one which is currently the only available way modern science can stimulate and directly affect the brain.
THE PINEAL GLAND
Jonathan Goldman tells in his book, Healing Sound, about a mind shaking experience in a completely dark cave in Palenque in Mexico, where his guide asked him to perform harmonious singing. When he began to tone harmonics towards the area the guide has indicated before the lights went out, the cave began to become illuminated, but it was not ordinarily light. It was more subtle, but it was definitely lighter in the room. The outline and figures of the people there could be seen and everyone was aware of it.
This experience was one of the more dramatic episodes in his life. It was only later that he began to process the experience and try to understand what had gone on: "I had been able to use sound to create light".
His conclusion was: by use of vocally created harmonics, it is possible to resonate and stimulate the pineal gland.
The pineal gland is a small, pine-cone-shaped gland located in the middle of the head. Esoterically, the pineal is often associated with the 'third eye' and was believed by Descartes to be the 'Seat of the Soul'. lt was once thought to be a vestigial organ and is now known to be a light sensitive clock affecting sleep and the sex glands.
Research by scientists such as Robert Beck suggest that the pineal is an organic device which is tuned towards magnetic north to give both humans and animals their sense of direction, Other scientists believe that the pineal is a bio-luminescent organ which has the ability to create light.
The pineal is rich in neuromelanin, which, according to scientist Frank Barr, is a phase-timing, information processing interface molecule which is a photo transducer. This is a substance which has the ability, among other traits, of absorbing and converting light energy to sound.
It also has the ability to turn sound energy into light. Barr believes that melanin and its brain counterpart, neuromelanin, may be the key link between the mind and the brain.
Through stimulation of the pineal gland, neuromelanin is produced. Neuromelanin, a light-sensitive compound triggers the release of a substance which contains phosphorus, a light-producing chemical. By stimulating the pineal gland through vocal harmonics, it may be possible that actual fields of light around the body are enhanced.
While this phenomenon is not too widely known, there does seem to be some reference to it in certain texts.
Dhyani Ywahoo, a Native American medicine woman, writes in "Voices of Our Ancestors", that in the Ancient Mystery Schools the initiations were held in total darkness. The initiates had to be able to produce their own light.
May be this was done through the creation of vocal harmonics. Spiritual scientist J. J. Hurtak writes of the phenomenon of creating light through the pineal gland in The Keys of Enoch:
”The 'light' which activates the pineal gland is not the conventional light of the sun... the brain produces its own light field on a molecular level... our neurocircuitry can produce its own light field”.
Jonathan Goldman discussed with Dr. Tomatis his experience of producing light through sound and suggested the hypothesis of the pineal creating this light. Dr. Tomatis knew of this phenomenon of creating light through sound, but believed that this light was created not through the pineal (the third eye) but through the heart.
It is interesting to note that the heart is an organ which is also extremely rich in melanin. What would be the healing benefits of creating light in this manner? The possibilities seem limitless. We would be enhancing and adding energy to the fields around our bodies, creating or restoring health and balance to areas of imbalance and disease. These possibilities of resonating the pineal through sound are yet another example of the potential use of harmonics to influence and affect the brain for health and well-being.
The Sound of Silence
by Thomas Váczy Hightower
The Sound of Silence
In the first part of The Sound of Silence we have mainly investigated the broaden concept of motion, the pendulum and its strange behavior at the quantum level. Now we will explore other meta physical aspects of music and sounds.
Standing waves is an essential phenomenon in the creation of the musical tone. In my page The Creation of the Musical Scale there is a description of standing waves.
Here we will just state, that standing waves automatically divide the length of a string or an air column into an integral number of half wave-lengths. It is only then, a standing wave can be sustained. That pattern is the most energy effective form nature can provide. (A similar pattern is the rhythm entrainment, where random oscillation after a while begin to oscillate in unison).
Standing waves can not exist unless they divide their medium into an integral numbers of half waves with its nodes. A standing waves having a fractional wavelength can not be sustained.
The same standing waves pattern can be preformed in a plate or a 3 dimensional box too. This pattern will look just like a highly enlarged crystal, if we assume that the aggregated particles or grains in the box fluid are analogous to the atoms in a crystal.
The key word in standing waves is order. In short, by using sound we have introduced order where previously there was none.
de Borglie waves
On the quantum level sound does not have meaning, but standing wave does still perform order, when we are looking at the orbiting electrons in an atom. In the early 20th. Century spectrum analysis showed 7 levels or series for the orbiting electrons, but it was unclear how the electrons was able to maintain they fixed orbits. The quantum physicist de Borglie came up with an explanation, when he in 1923 proposed, that the electrons not only existed as particles, but also behaved as waves of matter, which interfered with themselves as standing waves. By this order the numbers of electrons are maintained in their orbits. de Borglie's theory was later proved by experiments.
The orbit is only stable if it meets the condition for standing waves. The circumference had to be an integer number of the wavelength. The consequence is that only special values of radius and energy is allowed for the electrons, if they stay stable and do not emit energy. They are quantized.
Niels Bohr's atom theory stated in contrary to the classical law of electrodynamics, that the electrons do not emits energy, photons, as long as they energy integers are in accordance with the properties of standing waves.
Table of the Elements
The periodic tables of Elements reflexes the wave pattern of atoms. Usually the table is displayed with 7 series of quantized atoms, where the first level contains the lightest atoms, Hydrogen and Helium. The atomic weight depends mainly of the number of neutrons and protons in the nucleus and is increasing down the diagram. I have changed the periodic, vertical level with octaves.
If we look at the atomic weight, which is not indicated in this table of elements due to clarity, we will notice, that the law of octaves to a great extent is displayed by the double atomic weight for each descending octave. In addition, each main octave contains inner octaves on the horizontal, group level, so we can view the Table of Elements as a square of octaves.
This way of viewing the table of elements as a square of octaves does not have a scientific value. The atomic weight numbers do not in many cases show a strict octave behavior.
However, I find in the general display of the table of elements too many coincidences of octave patterns, that I dare bring this point of view. Nature does not reveals itself as a finished, perfect framework. There are flaws everywhere, cracks for the light to enter and space for the continuous creation.
Just think about is: the universe as we at the present time can observe: it is only a fraction of what really is out there. Literally speaking only the top of the iceberg. The empty space is loaded with invisible matter and energy, the "dark matter", which only indirectly can be detected and calculated by the rotation of galaxies. It is mind shaking, that science still have to figure out what kind of matter, that occupied most of the Universe.
In accordance with the cosmogony and the theory of the Big Bang for about 13,5 billion years ago, only Hydrogen and Helium existed in the new born Universe. The gravitational pull in clouds of those two elements shaped the stars, and the creations of the following elements slowly began under heat and pressure in the plasma. By the dead of a star, the new elements was and is continuously released into the inter stellar space. Some of the heavy elements can only be produced by Super Nova's.
I like to view the on going creation as a big decending cosmic octave, where the first notes was Hydrogen and Helium.
Music in the East and the West
In western tradition the legendary Orpheus, the Greek inventor of the 7 tone scale about 1200 BC, created the music in order to open the hearts of men for the divine 7 Rays. How the music actually was played in ancient Greek is speculation other than it was a sacred ritual, as in the East. They played the music differently, but the aim was the same.
It was first in the end of the 15th Century, when the change in the Western society with the Renaissance, the alteration in the focus became prominent. The close attachment to the church became more detached as the need or demand for music serving kings and the rise of rich business dynasties. The music changed more and more to the honor of man and to the glory of his outward manifestations.
The development in musical practice from monophonic to polyphonic and after the Renaissance to fully "harmonious" music, made it necessary to have especially the third harmonized. The Pythagorean third (81:64) is a syntonic comma larger than the harmonic third (5:4). The need for harmonizing the third in the part-songs became imperative as the polyphonic music became predominant.
New musical scales was developed to serve that requirement, such as the Just Intonation.
In the East the music remained as a tool for letting the heart sing its praise for the sublime God, the one inside as well as for the Universe.
The question remains: does music have a power that is above cultural differences? Does objective music exist?
Reijo Elsner has written an interesting article about Russian Icons: "Are Icons a form of Objective art?"
The concept of harmony
It is general knowledge, that the notion of harmony comes from the ancient Greeks word, harmonia. It was a key word of the Pythagoreanism and meant primarily the joining or fitting of things together. Originally it was connected to the concept of cosmos. Its musical meaning was established by the early fifth Century B.C. according to professor Guthrie ("A History of Greek Philosophy", Vol. I,) first seen from Pindar.
The numerical explanation of the universe was a generalization from the discovery made by Pythagoras himself and revealed the numerical ratios which determine the concordant intervals of the scale. We find it clearly in Aristotle's explanation of Pythagoras' harmony of the spheres and also in Plato's statements. (see my page The Harmony of the Spheres)
However, as Burnet notes, there was no such things as harmony in our sense. Harmonia meant tuning, or scale or octave. Classic Greek music was melodic, modal, without use of harmonious chords as we are used to.
Plutarch (44-120 B.C.) stats that for Pythagoras and his disciples, the word harmonia meant "octave" in the sense of an attunement which manifests within its limits both the proper fitting together of the concordant intervals, fourth and fifth, and the difference between them, the whole tone.
Moreover, Pythagoras proved that whatever can be said of one octave can be said of all octaves.
The essential point was, that the three intervals, the octave, the fourth and the fifth, were regarded as primary and fixed; as the element out of which any musical scale or composition was build. The other notes was not fixed and could move accordingly to the different modes.
Order and beauty - the concept of cosmos - was imposed by the three fixed notes with the ratio of 1:2, 2:3 and 3:4 on the chaotic range of sounds from the other untied notes.
This is for me a graphic display of hamonia; an integration of order and chaos. Harmony does not in my interpretation means pure harmonious tones, but permitting dissonance between the column of consonance creating harmony.
In our time there is a tendency to disregard the dissonance in the harmony concept making it to a sentimental, sweetish stuff. This is an unhealthy denial of real life consisting of chaos and order - dissonance and consonance.
The ancient Greeks had a profound understanding of balance and proper proportions. It was not accidental that they chose words on the temple of Apollo as "Nothing too much" or "Observe limit".
Chaos meant for the Greeks unlimited - evil. Limit stood for order, moderation - beauty.
The Greek genius in thought and art, represented the triumph of ratio, meaning on one hand the intelligible, determinate, measurable, as opposed to the fantastic, vague and shapeless. There had to be a proportion of things both in themselves and as related to the whole.
The integers 1,2,3 and 4 add up to 10, which was considered perfect and contained in itself the whole nature of numbers. This number was graphically represented by the figure known as the Tetratys, which became a sacred symbol for the Pythagoreans.
One have to notice, that already the ancient Greeks had observed the number 10 as prominent, about 2000 years before the introduction of the decimal system by the Muslims, who imported it from India.
Numbers was responsible for "harmony", the divine principle that governed the structure of the whole world. For the Pythagoreans the numbers had and retained, a mystical significance, an independent reality. Phenomena were secondary, for the only significant thing about phenomena was the way in which they reflected numbers.
That attitude was utterly different from that of a mathematician of today. Mathematics had for the Pythagoreans and also later for Plato a metaphysical as well as a purely mathematical significance. See Lambdoma or the Pythagorean Table and Barbara Hero.
The Golden Section or Phi-ratio
Mathematic and art has since Pythagoras discovery of the connection between numbers and tones had a deep relationship. The golden section, the Phi ratio, was considered by the ancient Greek as the most superb proportion and a cornerstone in art. Plato considered this proportion as a part of creation. In the Middle Age it was called the divine proportion and associate with the Trinity. The Golden section combine nature, mathematic and art in a wholesome unit with transcendental and eternal properties.
The outstanding feature of the golden section is the unique way, it can decrease or increases by keeping its exact proportions. The grow pattern in Nature reflexes this fixed proportion, which also is common in five-sided, pentagonal symmetries, that also contain Phi ratios.
The Golden Section has a geometric as well as an arithmetical expression, and basically it can be define as a specific way of dividing a line. When the whole line (a+b) relates to biggest section (a) as the biggest section relates to the smallest section (b), we have a Golden Section. The arithmetical expression is a mean proportional: a+b/a = a/b. It is a quadratic equation, where the roots of the ratio a/b = 1+5½ /2 = Phi = 1.618034....
Calculations of the quadratic equation: a+b/a = a/b ↔ ab + b2 = a2 ↔ a2 - ab - b2 = 0. Since it is the ratio a/b, we shall calculate, we have to divide the last equation with b2 which is: a2 /b2 - ab/b2 - b2 /b2 = 0; paraphrase as (a/b)2 - a/b - 1 = 0; the square roots of a/b = 1 ± 5½ /2. Since a and b is positive lines only the positive value is used. The approximate value of Phi ratio is 1.618034... The negative value is - 0.618034...The reciprocal value of the decimal is the same, or a/b - 1 = b/a.
There is a lot to tell about the Golden Section. The practical application in art and architecture is well known, e.g. Leonardo da Vinci. An example in our time was the architect le Corbusier, who developed a system of modules based on the golden section.
In music the Phi ratio does not show importance properly due to the intangible nature of music. (The Golden Section for an octave lays close to a diminished sixth.)
The Solar System and its Phi ratio
One of my readers, John Pritchard, has kindly made me aware of the special relationship The Golden Section and its Phi ratio has to our Solar System. The ratio that separates the 9 planets plus Ceres (in the Asteroid belt ) is nearly an exact match with the Phi ratio. The calculation can be made in different ways, but they come to the same conclusion. Their mean distance from the Sun follows the grow spiral from the Golden Section. http://solargeometry.com/DistCalc.htm ; http://www.goldenmuseum.com/index_engl.html
It is astonishing, that astronomers, who dedicated so much effort in studying the Harmony of the Spheres, such as Kepler, did not see the Phi ratio. (More details in my page The Harmony of the Spheres.)
I will leave the awesome Phi ratio, and move to the Fibonacci numbers, which also reflex's the growth patterns in Nature, and in a strange way is connected to the Golden Section.
A famous Italian mathematician, Leonardo of Pisa, also called Fibonacci, issued in 1202 BC a book, "Liber Abaci", which at that time contained the knowledge of mathematics using only the new Arabian number system. It was here he presented a series of numbers which was a solution of a problem dealing with theoretic rabbits breeding.
It was first later, that the magnitude of Fibonacci number sequence became known by great mathematicians as Euler and Bernoulli and later by Binets in his formula for Fibonacci numbers.
The peculiar thing in Binets' formula is the irrational number - square root 5 - where Fibonacci numbers only are whole numbers. We remember square root 5 in the Phi ratio, the Golden Section, and the awesome fact is, that the limiting value of the coefficient series (progression) of Fibonacci numbers is the Phi ratio: 1.6180341.... or Fn / Fn-1 when n is going towards eternity.
It is thought-provoking, that nature has chosen the Fibonacci progression for its principle of growth among the innumerable. However, it is a very simple additive progression: one number is the sum of the two previous numbers, and it possess the characteristic of approaching the Phi ratio most swiftly. The two first numbers is the same, namely 1, them starts the addition.
By displaceing the Fibonacci sequence with the nearest previous number, a sequence of ratios are produced. You can see for yourself, how farst the ratio of Fibonacci numbers are approaching the Phi ratio:
1/1, 2/1, 3/2, 5/3, 8/5, 13/8, 21/13, 34/21....Fn /Fn-1 ....Phi.
1, 2, 1.5, 1.66... 1.6, 1.625, 1.615..1.619...Fn /Fn-1....Phi.
The sequence of Fibonacci numbers are displayed in Nature in numerous ways, whether it is the position of leaves and seeds or the spiral of growth in a snail shell, which is similar to the Golden Section spiral. What is more surprising is the Fibonacci numbers appearance in probability calculation and Pascal's triad, which was discovered by a theorist of numbers, Edoward Lucas, in the 19th Century.
The use of Fibonacci numbers can be seen in architecture, a few times in modern literature and especially in modern dodecaphonic music, where the tonal order has been disintegrated and occasionally a new order was formed by Fibonacci numbers in the sequence of tones.
(I have seen web pages, which claim that the Fibonacci numbers produce a musical scale by repeating the beginning numbers. I am not able to see such scale fits the practical needs in common music)
A famous example in modern music was the Hungarian composer, Béla Bartók, who searched for "principles which can be serve as a law" (le Corbusier) by using the golden section and Fibonacci series as the underplaying principle in all the musical elements and especially the proportion of duration of movement in music.
The voice is an indication of the developmental level of a human being. It carries the signature of the being, who is speaking.
The voice is our breath, the essence of our very life; our being, with sound added to it. The voice is therefore a true mirror of inner health and mental stability, or lack of it. It reflex the full range of emotional excitement or disinterest. For those who can hear, the voice resonante the spiritual attainment of the speaker.
The same can be said about the way we laugh.
The tonal quality of our speech has more significance, on a subtle level, than what we actually say. Words are idle, if they are pronounced without the resonance of internal concord. The voice reflexes our whole being and our true intent. Any child can hear that, when we are scolding them.
Sound has the property of affecting the listener more direct and emotionally than sight, which is process in the brain as an distant object. Sound influences the receiver in a closer, more subjective way. It attains deeper emotional levels other places in the ancient brain. Smells have even a more instintive, (sexual) impact. Sounds and smells are received as a molecular input, while sight is an electronically transmission.
Chanting, intoning or singing is therefore a part in rituals or ceremonies of any culture through time. Singing together is a old and simple way of tuning the hearts and minds to a common aim.
There are also highly personal songs, belonging only to the individual through whom they come. Healing Songs, Life songs, mantra are examples of such.
Soul song is another personal sound therapy, which Andrea Arrowsmith, Inner Sounds of Light Institute
so kindly have made me aware of.
She states, that almost deaf she have all her life heard and played music on inner realms. Nature and all living things have keynotes and soul songs from inner realms, that she is able to "hear". Keynotes resonates from the soul level, always interwined with angelic choirs and music of the spheres.
The most important is the intention that is conveyed in the sounds. Although we might not verbalize our true thoughts, they emanate from our unconscious mind as we sing, and our own feeling are often purified in the process. This has been experienced by keen overtone singers.
Toning and "Overtones"
Both these practices are ancient and have been incorporated in one form or another into the songs of major religions. The call to prayer heard five-times daily in Muslim cultures is a type of chanting combined with Toning.
Toning is a system of healing that utilizes vowel sounds to alter vibrations in every molecule and cell in the body. I have read it is simple to learn and extremely powerful. Toning fills the atmosphere with sounds that reverberate long after the singer has quit. People find themselves inwardly silent and often unable to speak once the Toning process has been directed at them. When they do return from the mild trance the sound has placed them in, they are quiet and at peace and restored to balance internally and externally. They say the sound excites them, releases emotional trauma and physical discomfort, at the same time instilling mental unity and spiritual love.
The word Overtones originates from the German word, Obertone, which refers to the various numbers of partials or harmonics that are produced by the strongest and lowest fundamental tone and fused into a compound or complex tone.
In the 19th Century the German physicist Ohm was the first to formulate this scientifically in his acoustic law, and Herman von Helmholz did a thorough research in the field of harmonics and issued the first consistent body of theories in musical acoustics. About hundred years later his beat theory was replaced by the Consonant theory containing the Critical Band notion. See more in The Creation of Musical Scales.
The chanting of Tibetan monks is replete with harmonics in a highly rare manner that affect and stimulate the chakras.
In the western world Throat singing is also called overtone singing, harmonic singing, or harmonic chant. The most known Throat singing is the Tibetan and Mongolian chanting, but also many other regions in the World are practicing a similar type of singing, that manipulates the harmonics resonance's created as air travels through the human vocal folds and out the lips.
The harmonic frequencies created by the human vocal apparatus are harnessed in throat singing to select overtones by tuning the resonance in the mouth. The result of tuning allows the singer to create more than one pitch at the same time, with the capability of creating six pitches at once. Generally the sounds created by throat singing are low droning hums and high pitched flutelike melodies.
The Tibetan monks believe, that in the creation of the 'One Voice Chord', they do not 'make' the sound themselves. Rather, they become a vehicle through which the sacred sound may manifest. This is a basic principle contained in the Tibetan Buddhist teachings of sacred sound. The chanting of the Gyuto and Gyume monks embodies this understanding of sound and their powerful multi-phonic chanting exemplifies the application of this principle. The harmonics which they create are a result of their becoming one with sacred sound.
Western fascination of chanting monks
Since I wrote about the Tibetan "One voice chord" and Mongolian chanting, Hoomi singing, I have received several mails from Westerner practicing singers, who teach and perform throat singing, and they all tell me, that the technique actually is easy and do not require deep studies of Buddhism, still less spiritual enlightment, in order to perform the deep chordal chanting.
They point out that Western musicologists and scholars in their research of Tibetan chanting are infatuated by a well meaning but often incorrect fascination of the mysticism of the chanting monks.
Concerning the widespread propensity to mysticism among Western scholars of Tibetan chanting, I will quote a mail from a well known practician, Steve Sklar, who is a longtime student, performer and teacher of Tuvan Throat-Singing and Tibetan voice. He has a much more down to earth approach. He has even made on-line lessons in Throat Singing. Steve Sklar wrote:
"Since our earlier correspondence, I've tried to further investigate this issue of the monks' voice. I have indeed received some criticism for saying that there is indeed a technical basis for their peculiar chant voice. My point is that the voice can be understood and that there is no need to perpetuate myths about it. The Tibetan voice is a powerful and beautiful thing, valid in its own right, and not in need of romanticizing.
The actual technique simply involves the use of the ventricular folds in addition to the vocal folds, and often a lowering of the larynx / trachea, enhancing the deep sound by lengthening the air column of the vocal system.
Conversations with Tibetan monks and ex-monks still point to learning by exposure to and imitation of the elder monks. Some can produce the sounds as young boys, prior to joining the monasteries. Some, including some very highly regarded monks, cannot chant in the low chordal voice.
The Tibetans DO sometimes mention a reincarnational propensity towards various practices, such as memorizing texts or being good at chanting. Some have mentioned a belief, that I may have been a monk in a prior life, hence my skill at producing the tones and teaching."
The Medicine of the Future
Healing by sound has become a growing field, which already Edgar Cayce predicted a half century ago as the "the medicine of the future". This do not mean, that I overlook thousands of years practice of healing by music and sounds. There are multitude of cases in any culture, where music was applied to ease the distress or release the pain. I am referring to the many electronic devices that have been developed to heal with much more precision and direct effect.
Before we start the intangible topic of healing by sound, the placebo effect has to be mentioned, since it actually is in the domain of alternative medicine with its mobilization of mental energy.
It started in 1955, when H.K.Beecher was testing new medicaments and made a control group with plain chock tablets and discovered surprisingly, that on average 35% of the patients reacted positive to the "useless" tablets. He published an article, "Is the placebo powerless?, and caused a lot of turmoil. He concluded, that the power of imagination had an significant effect and the placebo effect became soon a factor in modern medicine.
Placebo is Latin meaning "want to please" and the interest for placebo has historical roots. In a medical connection it appeared first time in 1772. The physician William Cullen described in a lecture, how he as a last resort prescribed a placebo for a doomed patient to please him, and as a scientist to see what might happen.
I modern medicine the pleasing function of placebo is considered un-ethical. The testing function is carried out as a double blind test to eliminate possible, suggestive influence by the doctor. However, the New Age holistic paradigm has opened the interest of the medical establishment in the mental power of spontaneous healing. It recognizes the psychic regeneration of the immune systems and do not rule out unknown factors in microbiology.
Social, psychic-somatic ailments
When a doctor is able to make a diagnosis, the patient has a disease, and a treatment can commence. However, in this post-industrial age a astonishing amount of disorders or ailments, which are not able to be diagnose by regular medical findings. The symptoms are complex and un-specific: Chronic fatigue, back pain, despondency or weak depression, whip-lash, fibromyalgi or chronic pain syndrome, unaccountable paralysis.
We are talking about ailments, where the social circumstance is the major factor in producing the psychic, somatic disorders. This is still surround by taboo, since the side effect of modern, high effective work is considered as an acceptable price for the common good. Especially women has been hit by this new "diagnosis".
(Infants families where both parents are full time working are under inhuman strain, especially in Countries, where the wage of maids is high and homework is considered low status.)
A century ago a common "diagnosis" for such disorder was hysteria, and the treatment was hysterectomy. To day this kind of fashion diagnosis mainly apply to women with work injury. They need a diagnosis for their insurance case or the early retirement pension. In Scandinavia about 40 % of the workforce, mainly women, has been labeled unfit for full time work.
In short, when we are talking about disorders, we have to face the social circumstance.
Now we can start the brief introduction to healing sound. A more in depth account can be found in The Power of Harmonics.
Ono of the pioneers in using sound to heal was an English osteopath, Dr. Peter Guy Manners, MD. He became aware of Dr. Jenny's cymatic experiments, a Swiss scientist, who spent ten years observing and photographing the effects of sound upon inorganic matter. He himself was inspired by work of Ernest Chladni, an eighteenth-century scientist, who put sand on a glass plate and vibrated them with a violin bow creating harmonic patterns.
Dr. Manners, working under the premise, that disease is an "out of tune ness" of some aspects of the body, created a cymatic therapy and utilizes the Cymatic instrument, which contains thousands of different composite harmonics designed to place the body back into alignment and health.
An other example among many is an American MEd, Sherry Edwards, who has developed a bioacoustics healing system called "Signature Sound Works".
The human voice is in fact unique in its sound pattern, as good as a "finger print". Sherry Edwards used this feature to analyze voices of sick and healthy people by advanced electronic devices in order to find a correlation between voices in disease and physiological and psychological disorders. After having found particular frequencies in distress or simply missing, she chose those frequencies, generated them and loaded them on tape. Those frequencies are by earphones sent into the hearing system of the brain in order to manipulate brain waves and seemingly trick the brain to simulate dormant brain waves so the delinquent frequencies can be canceled or modified in the body/mind integration process and reconditioning. Brain waves as octaves
Robert Monroe, known for his books and research about out-of-body-experiences, has used specific low frequencies in a two-channel mode in order to produce "difference tones" (which means 2 sound waves that are subtracted from each other, and the result is a low frequency) in the brain, evoking synchronization of the brain’s two hemispheres.
Most solids can be affected to oscillate. The wave it produces, its frequency and shape, depends on the form of the body, the weight, and the material. A string e.g. swings in certain standing modes depending of the length of the string, its thickness and kind of material. The same applies to the sounding board of musical instruments that resonates and amplifies the oscillation of the string. With wind instruments the standing waves in the air pipe is the resonator.
A solid has also its own natural oscillation, which frequencies can be in a narrow or broader band depending on material and construction. The soundboard of many musical instruments has a broad bandwidth, e.g. the piano, in order to resonate and amplify the wide number of octaves.
The violin has a smaller bandwidth, which produces a stronger resonance, though especially with bad violins the frequencies of its own natural oscillation will be re-enforced by resonance and a strong howling tone will be made. The vibration of the string has hit the sound boxes own vibration and a resonance is made.
If a resonator has a its own resonance at f Hz it will begin to vibrate when it is affected by waves with f Hz, but also affected by waves in an interval around f Hz. The width of that interval is the bandwidth of the resonator.
Another important factor for resonance is the resistance of the material - its damping of the waves. Any vibration decays exponentially in time. The amplitude of the vibration is the expression of the damping.
Bandwidth and damping is in direct ratio, so a resonator with a wide bandwidth will also perform a strong damping, while a resonator with a small bandwidth will have little damping and consequently a strong resonance.
There are mechanical, electrical and acoustic resonators, including the human voice box.
The heart and aorta formed a special resonant system when breathing is ceased for a while. Then the heart beat seems to wait until the echo returns from the bifurcation (where the aorta forks out in the lower abdomen). Then the next heart beat sets in. In this synchronous way a resonant, standing wave of blood is established with a frequency about seven times a second. This harmonious mode requires for its sustenance a minimum amount of energy, which is an intelligent response from the body. In deep meditation a similar mode is established.
It is interesting to notice that this mode of 7 Hz is closed to the Schumann resonance.
The reason I introduce the resonance phenomena is to extend its scale to our Earth in order to introduce the Schumann resonance.
The space between the Earth and the Ionosphere forms a cavity, which can support electromagnetic standing waves with wavelengths that are comparable to the planetary dimensions. Within the lower atmosphere to a height of 60 – 70 km above the Earth’s surface the finite electrical conductivity of the atmosphere is maintained primarily by cosmic rays.
The combination of the nearly perfectly conducting terrestrial surface boundary and the highly conducting, but dissipate, ionospheric outer boundary separated by an insulating layer of non conducting air, creates an approximately spherical concentric cavity, the "Earth-ionosphere cavity" with electrically conducting walls.
These resonance's, called Schumann resonance's, have been observed at many different locations and can, in principle, be detected from any place on the planet with a radio receiver tuned for extremely low frequency (ELF) range of frequencies 3 – 300 Hz.
The resonance's are very weak and are easily obscured by nearby lightning and numerous other unrelated sources of man-made noise. However, away from these unrelated disturbances, the Schumann resonance's constitute the principal component of the natural background of the electromagnetic spectrum over the frequency range 6 – 50 Hz.
Resonance properties of the Earth's ionosphere cavity were first predicted and discussed theoretically by W.O.Schumann in 1952. Schumann and König made the earliest experimental detection of the resonance in 1954.
In the following decades, extensive studies and development of advanced electronic devices have displayed slight variations of the Schumann resonance due to the time span it is monitored and where and how the antenna is constructed and placed.
Mark Barner has kindly send me updated information about Schumann Wave:
"There has been a lot of misleading information regarding the value of the "Schumann Wave". There is no one specific value for it, due to the ever-changing nature of the Earth's ionosphere. Conclusion: Any modal frequency of the "Schumann Wave" phenomenon may vary by as much as 22.5% (or more) over an arbitrary span of time. This is due to changes in the minimum and maximum height of the ionosphere, it's composition and it's thickness. Note also that beyond the 4th modal harmonic, all wavebands will increasingly overlap. Therefore, to declare the value of 7.83 Hz as the "absolute, correct and only "Schumann Wave" frequency is to commit an error."
The most common order of the Schumann resonance is in Hz: 7.8, 14, 20, 26, 33, 39, 45… n,
where 7.8 Hz is the fundamental frequency and the following frequencies are the squeezed or overlaping harmonics of the standing wave.
These non-hertzial electromagnetic standing waves of terrestrial resonance's are interesting, if we look into the human brain wave pattern, EEG, and the human heartbeat displayed on ECG.
Scientists who want to incorporate spirituality and consciousness into their science have found, that harmonic geometry and the frequency window of heart coherence during meditation, is to be in a similar bandwidth (1-30 Hz), which characterized not only transcendence in brain EEG and heart/aorta resonance, but also the Earth's natural electro-magnetic resonance frequencies (Schumann resonance). See more at Heartbeat2000 indexmain.
Maybe Mother Nature has not chosen this as a mild coincidence. The Heart, the Brain, and the Earth all have their key information broadcasting on the same channel!
As far back as I can remember, I have had a special comfort in sitting under a tree, especially out in the forest. It has nothing to do with the cool shadow, but intuitively I have chosen that place in order to find myself and the tranquility, that is needed to be in tune and unification with Nature and Earth. I felt myself much alone in those days of childhood, and sitting for hours under a tree gave me comfort and peace of mind.
Now we have devices to test and measure the Earth's magnetic ELF frequencies actually falling into resonant alignment with a powerful and coherent human heart intention.
Nikola Tesla, who died mysteriously in 1944, had already discovered the electromagnetic standing waves (Schumann waves) in the "Earth-ionosphere cavity" in the late 19th century. Tesla’s wireless power system is well documented - both in patents and available literature. The idea, as I understand it, was to treat the Earth as a spherical capacitor, and to charge the ground with standing electric waves. Tesla tested this system at his Colorado Springs lab in 1898-1899. He then designed a full blown functional and complete system to be built at Wardenclyff on Long Island.
Marconi's theft of his radio, the refusal of JP Morgan to finance something he couldn't charge everybody for, and the advent of the World War I, prevented the completion of the project.
It is difficult to know to which extend the scientific establishment really understands Tesla's "free energy" system. Some are of the opinion that the "Magnifying Transmitter" would tap energy out of the electrical field of the atmosphere, thereby "becoming" a "free energy" device. However, J.P. Morgan's refusal to continue financing was based on the fact, that any fool could receive the power without having to pay for anything more than an antenna.
Tesla was the most famous, but not the only one, who struggled against hostile condition, when the development of real unconventional energy sources began to be possible. More about vortex energy - multi dimensional, "free" energy machines and the pioneer work.
All sorts of bizarre claims have coalesced around Tesla, probably as a result of his unique combination of brilliance and eccentricity. He was the closest thing to a stereotypical mad scientist this century has known. The stories about his discovery of amazing suppressed inventions only obscure his genuine legacy.
He invented: AC power, induction motors, generators, transformers and transmission; HFAC power, radio and wireless communication & transmission; automobile ignition systems, capacitors, neon & fluorescent lighting, arc lighting, blade less turbines, air-core resonant transformers ("Tesla coils"), oscillating shuttle circuits...
The different rhythms of the body may also be changed by sound. This is known as entrainment and involves the ability of the more powerful rhythmic vibrations of one object to change the less powerful rhythmic vibration of another object and cause them to synchronize their rhythms with the first object. Through sound, especially chanting or overtone singing, it is possible to change the rhythmic pattern of our brain waves, as well as our heart beat and respiration.
Different brain wave rates have been equated to different state of consciousness. There are four basic categories of brain waves:
1. Beta waves, from 14 to 20 Hz, which are found in our normal waking state of mind.
2. Alpha waves, from 8 to 13 Hz, which occur when we daydream or meditate.
3. Theta waves, from 4 to 7 Hz, which are found in states of deep meditation and sleep, as well in shamanic activity.
4. Delta waves, from 0,5 to 3 Hz, which occur in deep sleep and have been found in very propound states of meditation and healing.
How the brain really works is not figured out by science since there are many basic unsolved questions. Brain Research index
An independent researcher, Steven Lehar, former Professor of Cognitive Psychology, presents on his webpage a harmonic resonance theory, that could explane the spatial brain problem: "the harmonic resonance theory of spatial representation finally offers a plausible solution to the profound spatial problem in the brain, that circumvents the combinatorial problems inherent in a neural network or spatial template solution to this problem, a spatial standing wave pattern".
In a mail he wrote:
"I have a theory that the patterns of our experience are expressed in the brain in the form of standing waves. In other words, the operational principle of the brain is more like a musical instrument than a computer, and the "input" to that instrument is the same as the input to a musical instrument, i.e. it is like the damping of fingers on strings or over holes that control the pattern of resonance in the instrument, and the "output" is both a musical tone, and a spatial standing wave pattern in the body of the instrument."
Every organ, bone and tissue in the human body has its own separate resonant frequency. Together they made up a composite frequency, a harmonic, that is your own personal vibratory signature. This signature encircle the body with a field, which some gifted people can see as an aura and it can be recorded by means of Kirlian photography.
There are different names for those fields around the body, that could serve as a connection or an intermediary to higher worlds, such as Auras, Astral bodies, "the higher bodies of Man" or chakras above the 7th.
But we can turn to a more scientific terminology by looking into the oscillating fields, that surround our body.
The electromagnetic and electrostatic fields making op and shaping our body are relative strong and serve to hold our atoms and molecules together. They weaken as they move outside our body. There is a relative strong field about 4 inches outside the body. Then it weaken strongly and fade slowly out to 20 inches. The strengths of the field depends much on the vitality of the person. If the vitality is low by sickness or depression, there will be practically no field at all.
Actually, it is a electro dynamic field caused by the motion of the body. The heart/aorta system is the main supplier of the pulsing motion of the body. It is between 6.8 and 7.5 Hz. This motion is spread to the whole body. Even the brain oscillate a little.
The band width of the brain
Looking at the hearing faculties of a human being, we know, that the input to the hearing center in the brain is around 1 million bits per second. One bit is the smallest piece of information there is, namely 1 or 0, yes or no, first formulated by the Hungarian scientist, Leo Szilard.
The input from the 5 senses is about 11 million bits per second. No wonder the head is so warm! What an enormous work to process and get rid of all the unnecessary information from that huge input. So the big question that has puzzled scientists for many decades is, how can the brain handle all this information so only relevant messages reach the conscious part? In this context consciousness means the ordinary state of mind where the necessary information for maintaining orientation in life is taking place.
Sophisticated laboratory tests performed by many different scientists has shown, that normal consciousness can process only around 16-20 bits per second. Depending on what kind of intellectual work they are testing, the number of bits differs a little but the upper limit is 50 bits/sec.
Especially the American scientist Benjamin Lebet (German origin) has done pioneer work in that field. Even during open surgery in the brain he has performed many tests while the patients are awake and communicating.
Professor Helmar Frank’s approach differs from the general empirical method by looking at the central maximum stream of consciousness as a subjective time quantum (Subjective Zeit Quant, SZQ), the smallest moment of perception. That quantum fits well with humans' capacity of hearing and seeing. Sound impulses up to 16 beats per sec. are heard separately, but over 16 beats it's merged into a continuous sound. The same applies to the speed of pictures. Over 16-18 frames per sec. will compose a smooth movement.
It is an astonishingly small capacity - about 16 bits per sec. the conscious mind can process. On the other hand, it has access to a large memory bank.
As it has been pointed out about great story tellers such as H.C.Andersen and tales collected by the Grimm Brothers, that their writing, though containing little information in bits, is able to access the long path to the memory bank so a huge amount of information can be released. Their words are pregnant so they can release and create many associations.
Please note that the above mentioned tests are limited to one channel at a time. The tests do not reflect the many other channels of information, we receive simultaneously. Though they may not be noted, they still "color" the few bits of information.
The sub-limit perception - meaning all the input from our senses the consciousness is not aware of, are enormous; about 11 millions bits/sec. As it is stated in the theory of information-entropy: the more information the more entropy. So the big work of the brain is to throw away information - to forget, which is done by heat. About a million times less information is allowed to enter the consciousness.
What is interesting is also the delay in real time (0.5 sec) and the simulation of data the brain performs. The most surprising for me is the simulation of referring the events back in time to the moment, where the actual registration of the event occurs. EEG can record that as "the readiness potential" 0.02 seconds after the action or simulation.
I do not of course refer to the instinctive or moving parts, that react almost instantly, but to the intellectual part that interprets those few bits, that are made available, when the millions of bits are thrown away as heat.
When one thinks about it, it makes sense. It takes time to process the 11 million bits/sec and only make the intellectual part aware of what is relevant for orientation in life. When a tiger is after you, the information about a beautiful flower you are passing, cannot in that situation be considered worth paying attention to!
We have to bear in mind that the above-mentioned small numbers of bits apply only to the intellectual capacities of the brain. The sub-limit perception from all our senses and the processing from the other centers of intelligence - instinctive, moving and emotional – add enormously to the small amount of intellectual data.
A more extensive account of man as a cybernetic system: Information theory.
Dimensions and time
In an ordinarily state of mind humans perceive the world as 3 dimensional, the 3 space dimensions. The 4th dimension manifest it selves as an entirely new direction giving space to a new realm. In mathematics the imaginary numbers containing the negative square root can be regarded as such.
The 4th dimension is called time, and can usually not be seen or directly detected. (see the 4th dimension and Möbius tape).
The mathematician Minkovski officially pronounced it as a physical fact in 1904 and the physical constants have to be 4th dimensional, e.g. Planck's constant in quantum physics. Later Albert Einstein made good use of the 4th dimension in his Theory of Relativity.
Due to our particular size we can observe movements of a certain magnitude or speed, e.g. the hand of a clock showing seconds can be seen, but not hours, or watching the clouds move but not be able to see the grass grow. The perception of time must change due to size or cosmos. A May fly will perceive a thunderstorm entirely different than a human, which life span for the sun will be detected as a spark!
Time seems to be very unlike in different cosmos' unless we look at the amount of breath a being makes in a lifetime. It mounts up to be about the same for every being, while the duration of breath differ enormously. In Genesis it is said, that God created the world in 7 days. To comprehend this timetable the human time perception is not useable.
"Time is breath", as Gurdjieff pronounced for his students in Moscow during WW1.
Humans as multidimensional bodies
The reason I have presented some logical deductions of the nature of the 4th dimension is to establish an idea of higher Dimensions inserted into lower Dimensions. In doing so I want to expand the notion of worlds within worlds, and further on to consider a human as a multidimensional body beyond the third and fourth Dimensions. Several traditions refer to such realm as the astral and mental body.
In the Western culture we traditionally discard, what we are unable to measure physically and what we are not able to repeat in controlled environments. Although that method surely establish a solid foundation in science and have had an immense success, it eliminates other more intangible phenomena such as consciousness and the whole being of man.
History shows that scientists first had an intuitive grasp of what is going to unfold, when a major breakthrough in science was made.
Dean Radin, PhD. has in his book, "The Conscious Universe"- the scientific truth of psychic phenomena, made a strictly scientific account on mind over matter cases. As a Bell Labs researcher he began to study ESP and Para psychological phenomena as it was a cutting edge science, and on bases of empirical science, he found so many evidences of focused mind interference with physical matter, that he consider Phi research as a whole new field for modern science.
Technology has provided humans with extra capacities by means of devices and at the same time diminish human's own by birth abilities. The mechanical clock, e.g. withers away ones own faculty to estimate time, or electronic tools substitute human's own hidden abilities to communicate, e.g. telepathy.Aboriginal populations and native tribes over the world have in many cases demonstrated "miracles" such as shape shifting, moving the "body" to another location in an instant, clairvoyance and remote seeing, time traveling, etc.
I have myself looked into that subject. The Australian Aborigine’s ancient culture had a long tradition of what we will call magic. A highly valuable book on that matter is "Aboriginal Men of High Degree" by the Australian professor in anthropology, A.P.Elkin.
Higher vibrations - a misleading new age concept.
Sun sign or Zodiacs
In the East the Tone Zodiacs is much older than in the West. The oldest Western Tone Zodiacs is that of Ptolemy’s ”Harmonics ”(2. Century AD), in which the circle corresponds to the Greek two-octave system. He did several books about the synthesis between music, the psyche and the cosmos. The Tone – Zodiacs signs was one of his many analogies, properly rooted in the Babylonians tradition of astronomy and numerology. (The Babylonians divided the circle into 360 degrees and placed the Zodiac on the circumference.)
The different Tone Zodiacs was actually correlated with the whole tone scale in circular temperament. The problem is, that the many non circular temperaments had to be modified to fit the circle. The ancient Chinese e.g. eliminated the ”Pythagorean Comma”, the 12th Fifths produce, in order to fit the notes to the circumference.
Since music theory in most cultures are one octave base, Tone-Zodiacs generally correlate the twelve signs with the twelve notes of the tempered chromatic scale, where the half notes are the same frequency either they are sharp or flat e.g. F# = Gb.
An interesting correlation between musical intervals and the astrological aspects was already pointed out by Kepler, who was an astrologer as well as an astronomer. Omitting the geometrical matter, his observation is basically that one can regard the zodiacal circle as a length to be divided as one would stop a monochord string. Comparison of the whole length to the greater portion remaining will then give the interval corresponding to the aspect. Here is three primary divisions:
Opposition (planets 180 degrees apart). Ratio of whole circle to half: 360: 180 = 2:1. Interval: Octave.
Trine (planets 120 degrees apart), ratio to whole to greater part, 360:240 degrees = 3:2. Interval: Perfect Fifth.
Square (planets 90 degrees apart), ratio of whole to greater part, 360: 270 degrees = 4:3. Interval: Perfect Fourth.
The three most powerful aspect are expressed by the same ratio as the three perfect consonance’s in music. One can amplify this to make a complete table of aspects in modern astrological use and find the musical intervals corresponding to them.
Pythagoras' Comma, a symbol of renewal
Comma means in Greek, incision. It alludes to the little rest that arises from the 7 octaves and the 12 fifths in the acoustic, mathematical calculation of the 12 chromatic notes in an octave. In the 7 octaves span the 12 fifth's does not fit completely, they are about 23.5 cents bigger. (Cents is a logarithmic unit common used in acoustic) The ratios in vibrations are stated in dictionaries as 524288 : 531441 or approximately 80 : 81.
We can quickly see how these numbers are made: 7 octaves are (2:1)7 = 128. 12 fifth's are (3:2)12 = 129.74634… ; 128 < 312 /212 ; 212 = 4096; by multiplying with 4096 on both sides of the < we have: 128 x 4096 = 524288 < 312 = 531441.
The ancient Greeks believed in simple small numbers. Their holy tetractys expressed among other relationships the 3 sacred ratios 1:2, 2:3, 3:4 in a triad symbolizing the realm of Nature, the world of Humans and the realm of the Divine. The square symbolized the reunion of humans and the divine.
These 3 ratios were considered holy intervals. Music is derived from a Greek word, which means "Any art over which the Muses presided." A muse was any one of the 9 sister goddesses, daughters of Zeus and Mnemosyne.
The discrepancy between divine music and earthly ears, called a Pythagorean comma, was deeply understood by the ancient Greeks.
Pythagoras is said to be the first who formulated this schism between pure mathematical divine intervals and the practical, human need to have a scale available in musical practice.
(See also the page The Calendar and the Pythagorean comma. and Time and the Technosphere: The Law of Time in Human Affairs by José Argüelles)
Music was a cornerstone in ancient religions and was considered as an important tool to educate and tune the human mind and heart for the divine, thereby shaping the civilization.
The Pythagoras Comma was an indication that there IS more than humans are able to conceive. For the comma was not a slight interval less than 7 octaves, but in excess of them. In the ancient world this fact was widely conceived of as a symbol of renewal. The cycle of twelve perfect fifths did not close and finish a cycle of seven octaves, but exceeded it, and thus, as it were, spiraled upward in the cycle of fifths.
Pythagoras' comma, then, can be seen as being God's own anagram written into the very laws of the universe and physics. It is by the name of this anagram that man is heir to the promise of eventual resurrection and ascension out of the dim caverns of mortality.
The audible music was imperfect and low in vibrations compared to the divine, the music of the Spheres - though a faint echo of the divine music was able to reach the earthly world.
The Comma could indicate a beginning of a new and higher realm, a gate to the spiritual world, or a seed of the divine in humans.
In Christian tradition it could refer to the dormant seed of Christ planted in every human.
The Platonic Year or the Pythagorean Great Year
The cycle of fifths can continue much further than the twelfth fifth (note 13), where we are back to the fundamental but it is 23.5 cent higher (5.88 savarts) than the fundamental, a Pythagorean Comma higher. The following 12 fifths will place themselves one comma above the former ones, so the 24th fifth (note 25) will be one comma above note 13, or 2 commas, 11.74 savarts, above the fundamental, C++.
In this way successive series of twelve fifths will be placed one above the other at one comma intervals, up to the 52en fifth (note 53).
At this stage, after the 52nd fifth, the octave is filled up (52 x 5.88 savarts) and the 53rd fifth, (note 54) comes out of the octave and inserts itself between the fundamental and the 12th fifths, thus forming, above the fundamental a small interval of 0,84 savarts.
Thus begins a new cycle, which in its turn, with a period of 53 fifths, will divide the octave into small intervals of 0,84 savarts
The next cycle will appear during the seventh series of 53 fifths, when the 359 fifths (note 360) comes out of the octave and forms with the fundamental, a new even smaller interval of 0.47 savarts.(since the comma of 0.88 savarts is 7 times smaller, 7 series of 53 fifths is needed to fill the octave).
Then there is a cycle of 666 notes with a basis interval of 0.035 savarts.
When we come to the cycle of 25,524 notes with a basic interval of 0.002174 savarts, it begins to be interesting, since this cycle is near the precession of equinoxes or the Pythagorean Great Year, which is 25,920 solar years. (The numbers of fifths are based on Alain Daniélou's calculations in "Music and the Power of Sounds").
I have been tempted to make a comparison with the cycle of fifths and the Platonic Year in spite of the differences in unite. It is in conflict with basic scientific principle to mix different set of units such as years and notes. This bold assumption have caused some legitimate reaction from readers. Dennis Rossi writes, that precession of the equinoxes was discovered in China at a later date. It is attributed to Yu Xi in 320 CE. He found a value of about 72 arc seconds per year or two times the value found by Hipparchus, the Greek astronomer. However, "astronomers as early as the Han era noted that winter solstice shifted with respect to lunar lodges".
I did tried to calculate the cycle of fifths with a lunar year instead of solar year but the numbers did not fit anyway. So far I am not able to produce a valid explanation of how the ancient Chinese did tuned their fundamental tone, Kung, to the Platonic Year.
Cousto has in his book, The Cosmic Octave, an interesting observation on this matter. He relates the Kung to the frequency of the Platonic Year. The duration of the Platonic Year, (The Pythagorean Great Year) is about 25,920 years and it represents the amount of time the axis of the Earth takes to complete a full rotation. The vernal equinox is the point at which the equator (of Earth) intersects the ecliptic (or zodiac), which is the position of the sun at the beginning of spring - March 21st.
The vernal equinox takes an average of 2,160 years to travel through one sign of zodiac. This period of time is known as an age. It is not possible to state exactly when one age is ending and a new beginning, because the signs overlap to a certain degree.
The journey of the vernal equinox through each of the 12 signs of the Zodiac equals one great year of approx, 25,920 years. (Presently we are on the cusp of Aquarius as the age of Pisces is ending.)
The precession of equinoxes cause in the span of millenniums do not only change the fixed stars inter related position, but there have to be a shift of sign in regard to the equinoxes as well as Solstices.
Since the (vernal) equinox takes an average of 2,160 years to travel through one sign of zodiac, means that for 2,160 years ago, when the ancient Chinese looked at the zodiac, the "beginning" sign in the vernal equinox was one sign away from that it is now. Or two signs away for nearly 4,500 years ago, when the Egyptian ISIS was known.
As I mentioned previously it is most likely a coincidence, that the Platonic Year is close to the high number of generating fifths, when we come into a cycle of 25,524 notes.
It is however a wonder for me, how the ancient Chinese could tuned their sacred fundamental tone, Kung, so it could be in accordance with the Platonic Year and choose the great rhythm of the Earth. So far, I choose to think, that the Chinese manifested a great awareness and intuition in cosmic influences.
Cousto calculates the note of the Platonic year to be F in the Western Equal Temperament pitch, which is found in the 48th octave with a frequency of 344.12 Hz. or in the 47th. octave to be 172.06 Hz.
Calculation: 31 556 925.97(the tropical year in seconds) * 25,920 (Platonic year). Since the length (of a vibrating string, or the period of time) is in reverse proportionality to the frequency, the length of the Platonic year in seconds shall be the denominator. The frequency is very low, so we will raise the frequency to the range of hearing by multiplying with the necessary amount of octaves, e.g. 48 octaves, so we arrive to 344,12 Hz. (47 octaves will be the half, 172,06 Hz.)
If we want to reach the spectrum of light, we multiply with 89 octaves which leads us to a frequency of 1/31 556 925.97 * 1/25 920 * 2 89 = 7,56 * 10 14 Hz. corresponding to a wavelength of 0.396 micrometer, which we perceive as violet near the ultra violet. This is the color of the Platonic Year. The complementary color to violet is yellow. The Chinese called their fundamental tone "the yellow bell".
The schism of heavenly alignment
Through the ages, civilizations have often wrestled with the dilemma of whether to put up with unpractical musical pitches to keep the pure idealism in their system of pitch-calculation, or to depart a little from alignment with the heavenly ideal by taking the practical path of slightly adjusting their notes in order to harmonize them.
Though there were individual figures who dissented, the ancient western cultures generally opted, in their idealism, for heavenly alignment at the expense of having slightly imperfect relationships between their notes.
However, by the seventeenth century AD the Western world would have begun its entry into the present era of science and logic. This era was marked not only by an attitude of heavy materialism, but also by a most useful pragmatism. The heavenly alignment in the sacred tuning was abandoned for the sake of expanding music’s harmonic possibilities.
Surely in the following centuries a new era of sublime harmonic music was composed in the deep intent to praise God in the music. However the focus was laid in the heart of each individual instead of the tuning of instruments and temperament of the scale.
The ancient Chinese culture was a model for a strict, collective system of tuning of instruments. The reference tone, Kung, relates to the frequency of the Platonic Year. The note of the Platonic year is F in the Western Equal Temperament pitch, which is found in the 48th octave with a frequency of 344.12 Hz.
The Indian ancient music had a less rigid system, where improvisations was allowed within the bordes of certain inviolable modes. The fundamental OM sound, according to Cousto, corresponds approximately to the C sharp in the small octave of the present day tuning system (136 Hz) and corresponds to the 32nd octave tone of the Earth year.
The power of Music and the power of the Mind
Numerous Chinese legends attest to the power of music and sound. Here is a quote about the music master Wen of Cheng and how he learned to control the elements:
"Master Wen was following the great master Hsiang on his travels. For three years master Wen touched the strings of his zither, but no melody came. Then master Hsiang said to him: "By all means, go home".
Putting down his instrument, master Wen sighed and said: "It is not that I cannot bring a melody about. What I have in my mind does not concern strings; what I aim at is not tones. Not until I have reached it in my heart can I express it on the instrument; therefore I do not dare move my hand and touch the strings. But give me a short while and then examine me."
Some time later he returned and again approached master Hsiang, who inquired: "How about your playing?"
It was spring, but when master Wen plucked the Shang string and accompanied it with the eighth semitone, a cool wind sprang up, and the shrubs and trees bore fruits. Now it was autumn!
Again master Wen plucked a string, the Chiao string, and accompanied it with the second semitone: a languid, warm breeze appeared, and the shrubs and trees bloomed fully. It was now summer, but he plucked the Yü string and had the eleventh semitone respond, upon which hoar frost and snow came down, the rivers and lakes freezing up.
When the winter had come, he plucked the Chib string and accompanied it with the fifth semitone: the sun blazed forth and the ice immediately melted away.
Finally, master Wen of Cheng sounded the Kung string and did so in unison with the other four strings: beautiful winds murmured, clouds of good fortune came up, there fell sweet dew, and the springs of water welled up powerfully."
In this story the four outer strings of the zither, and the four seasons, are symbolic of the ancient conception of the four aspects of man: his abstract mind, his concrete mind, his emotions and his physical body. (The European alchemists called them Fire, Air, Water and Earth)
Master Wen could not play until he was able to master his own four aspects of Being. The vital outcome of the mastery of mind and body was the ability to play these four outer strings in unison and hereby also learn to play the central Kung string – corresponding to his Higher Self. From the four-sided base of the pyramid of life, he had raised himself up to the very apex of perfection.
The moral of the story is twofold: first, we must master our four-fold nature, before we can attain self-realization. Secondly, only by doing so we can begin to perform music, which is sublime and divine.
The decline of the Chinese culture
The ancient Chinese believed, that music could influence the harmony of the society, and they were very keen on right tuning with the celestial influence, so order and harmony could prevail. The Chinese imperial culture manage to flourish for 4 thousand years, before a decline began in the 19th. Century. The taste for a modern style in drama and music was beginning to replace the ancient traditions. The great classical modes were supplanted by styles which were more popular, noisier, cheaper and imitative. The Western influence may have played a part, since its music was begun to be appreciated and played on the expense of their own traditional music.
The fact remains, that the decline in music was paralleled by a general decline in the culture itself. The emperors of the last dynasty attempted to direct music back to its former state, but without success. In 1912 it was replaced by a republic. Yet from its beginning the republic was rocked by instability, Japanese invation and civil wars, untill the Communist China in 1949 was founded.
In this Century, we are begining to see the outline of a new, powerful Chinese culture.
Does music shape the society?
The general assumption is, that music is a product of the society and a reflection of its culture. This may be so in many cases, but history has also examples were new music has been the initial force to alter the society and even change the cause of history.
A good example is the American revolution and Independence War against the British colonial regime. Several years before the actual uprising, resistance songs began to appear in print and swept the colonies with extremely popularity. The inspirational, freedom songs was the gathering force for organizing resistance gropes and the mean for shaping their vision for the future of their land.
The "Freedom Song" by John Dickinson in 1768 was one of the first and set the pattern for all those songs, which fueled the minds and spirit years before the actual physical movement began.
During the Independence War the "Yankee Doodle" was a favorites of favorites, sung in defeat as well as in the final victory.
Many of the political leaders of the emerging New World, such as Francis Hopkinson, Thomas Paine and Benjamin Franklin, were among the songwriters, in addition to being Freemasons.
The uniting or dividing force of music
The history of USA shows how powerful music can be. The Americans has in my opinion a special talent for entertainment and music, which has manifested itself as a world captioning force in the 20th. Century.
Music has the power of uniting people as well as dividing them. It can be the medium of creating uplifting (sublime) emotions, unite disagreeable parts or at least for pacifying the common man.
Music can support people in their idea of an identity, which clearly is manifested in the generation gap or sub grouping. As a music teacher cried out: "Beatles is as remote for the young kids as Beethoven!"
What is new is the shot amount of years between generations. 5 years can easy separate youngster by fashion of music.
The new popular music has created strong space in the mind of the modern youth creating an idea of identity and affiliation with sub groups.
Before music had the power to unite people. Now it seems to divide.
There is a long tradition for fueling the national or political affiliations by music, such as the national anthem and party songs. Sometime music even can built the bridge between hostile groups, though the have not meet.
An example of such is the West-East Divan symphony orchestra founded by the famous Jewish pianist Daniel Barnboim and exiled Palestine scholar Edward Said. The sole reason of this orchestra was to manifest, that Jews, Muslims, Christens are able to play music together in spite of deep differences. As Daniel Barnboim said, when he became honored citizen of Palestrina: "Playing together does not create peace. Playing together brings mutual understanding and respect, which is the fundament for peace."
There are other orchestras world wide with similar intentions.
Music as a threat to the government
The concern a regime or an establishment has against new music, demonstrate what power music is considered by the rulers to have on the mind of the people.
A modern example is the repression of Western music, the Communist Russia and similar dictatorships executed with zealous strength by censorship and persecution.
The established hierarchy and control can be questioned or threatened by the new music introduction to novel modes of consciousness into the society. Classical music from the earlier imperial zar-regime was aloud, since it encodes and articulates the structure of a centralized political-economic system similar to the communist dictatorship. Music composers during the communist regime was forced to obey the party guide lines and praise the establishment.
The Western music, however, reflects in its structure a less rigid form of hierarchy (democracy), which allows much more creativity and innovation. The rock n' roll music has in many ways become a powerful medium for the propagation of the lifestyle of the Western world. Totalitarian states worldwide try to prevent its youth to hear it well aware of its liberating force.
An example could be the use of rap music created by the young generation in Iran as a protest against the strict religious government. On the other hand, in the Muslim ghettoes of France, the rap is about their alienation and hate at the police.
Music as a weapon
In many historic battles the music had the function of encouraging the fighting spirit. The Scottish bagpipe was famous in many WWII battles. During the Vietnam war the eclectic guitar and the protest songs was a powerful weapon for the drafted youth against that war. The electrification of the music made it possible to reach a big audience in live concerts, when the record companies tried to band the protest songs.
Also, in the general battle against the establishment, the new culture of youth personify in rock bands had great success in capturing the mind and shaping the new identity. The "Hippie" movement or the "Beat" generation was supported by the explosion of new music, which subverted the old structure in the society by praising "freedom" and "individuality", a.s.o.
The entertainment industry is bigger and more powerful than ever. For better and for worse. I like to say, that entertainment is stronger than military force. There is much truth in the joke about, what made the communist Russia to collapse? It was the soap TV series called "Dallas"!
Of cause the so called sex liberation had a powerful "weapon" with the new music. It was more sexy to be a musician than an engineer! Popular music became the fast lane to fame, sex and money for underprivileged, ambitious people.
In the course of time the corruption became obvious. Few had the backbone to withstand the cult status and displayed an abusive behavior and a depraved example for the fans.
When old rituals are removed, the empty space has to be replaced by something else. The vacant space has in my opinion been taken over by "the lord of the flies"(W.Golding's book). The tyranny of formlessness! When parents e.g. have resigned their authority, the children make their own regulations even more tyrannical.
The importance of rituals
Rituals give a concrete shape, color and zest to many abstract spiritual ideals. A wisely planned and solemnly conducted ritual prepares the ground, creates the atmosphere, suggests the mood and predisposes the mind so that we may easily detach ourselves from the three dimensional (+ time) worlds and feel the mysterious presence of the higher intelligence and the Supreme universal power.
The greatest men in life, the most wonderfully developed in spirituality, have all come through the discipline of the rituals.
Magic and rituals have long been connected. There is magic in any ceremony that we do, whether it of a routine nature, such as making a wish on our birthday, or whether it is a sophisticated ritual involving all kinds of movements, lights and music.
In both cases we are using the power of the ritual in order to obtain something in our life, or to enter higher dimensions.
An actual definition of magic is difficult. Scott Cunningham states: "Magic is the projection of natural energies to produce needed effects." In other words, every time that we consciously connect to the universal energy in order to direct it to a specific result that we wish to manifest in our life, we are utilizing the so called magic.
Rituals are the tools by which we are utilizing and harnessing the power of the universe. The purpose is to demonstrate the connection between nature and its laws. Rituals are a reminder to us that we are an intricate part of this vast universe. Ritual is the form and structure that enables our spirit to enter higher dimensions. It is the safe space that allows us to open to the deepest part of ourselves.
Ritual is transformational. You commence a ritual in one state of being and end in another. The result is always a shift of consciousness. Ritual contributes to your wholeness by allowing enough safety and freedom for all the parts of yourself to be expressed.
Considering how much indifferent, space filling "music" has occupied the modern environment, I would say, that "music" has become a destructive force itself, preventing one to think and feel for oneselves and make one numb.
Silence has become a care commodity.
As Aldous Huxley stated: 'The twentieth century is, among other things, the Age of Noise. Physical noise, mental noise and noise of desire - we hold history's record for all of them. And no wonder; for all the resources of our almost miraculous technology have been thrown into the current assault against silence."
Economy, society and music
The history shows how music (and art) served those institutions, that had the power and money in the society. This statement might sound a bit overstating for those thinking, that art has its own agenda, but in the long run the economy rules the art.
For a long time the church sponsored the art. When the king got the upper hand, the art began to reflect a more mundane expression. With the rise of the middle class (and introduction of democracy), the art began to fulfill their need for entertainment, since they had the money to pay for it.
After World War II an entirely new segment of the society began to have money available for entertainment especially for music, the teenagers. Rock n' Roll and later Beat music shaped a new anti-authoritarian culture of youth, which changed the structure of the society, when that generation entered the institutions.
Read more at my page about music and society in this age of the fatherless society, where dreams and feelings are the engine in the society, not the physical needs. The virtual world is here to stay!
The question of good and evil
My sole concern in these pages has been the positive aspect of music and sound. How it has the capacity to elevate, enrich and feed the body and soul for its dormant potential. Music has the ability to soak and clean ones innate strength. However, it can not create gold, if there is no gold in the first place, as the old alchemist belived. There have to be a seed, which music can enrich. Failing this the music is futile.
As a keen music lover it has troubled me to read about the use of music in Nazi concentration camps. Fine classical music was played for the waiting prisoner doomed for destruction. The commandant of Auswitzs was a music lover and played his violin to the thick smoke from the crematory. Adolf Hitler was inspired by Richard Wagner's "Parsifal". I am too. Does this make me or Wagner to a monster?
The great Father of the Church, Aurelius Augustinus, 354-430 AC, used an example to illustrate the evil. He will not steal the pear in the garden of the neighbor for the pleasure of eating the pear, but because it was forbidden. He wished the evil, because it was evil.
"I stole, because I had a dislike for doing the right, and it urges me to sin," he confessed.
Humans has their freedom as a birthright given by their creator. Hence, they make their own choice between good and evil. "The drama of liberty" as the post war German philosopher, Rüdiger Safranski, label it in his book, "The Evil".
Since the legendary Cain killed his brother, mankind has tried to deal with its enigmatic freedom. Through millennium religion's, philosophical systems and ethics has attempted to moderate the boundless liberty of man with more or less success.
In regard to the twentieth Century chaotic bloodshed, Safranski articulate a question about our modern, technological civilization:
Does it in reality eliminate the freedom to act for the modern man?
The deeds of the individual human is still possible as before, but they are now woven into so many complex systems, that the desired effect is far from the final result. Has the dynamic of our complex technological civilization now reached a point, where it has its own inherent logic, and man is going to be "burnt" by its own civilization?
Safranski asked, if this degree of civilization has become disastrous and therefore evil?
Man has liberated himself from Nature by means of institutions and civilizations. Now the question is: has civilization disengaged its self from man? Is humanity still in control and is able to make choices between good and evil? It can make weapons of mass destruction, but does it have a simillar level of consciousness and devolopment of the heart? Has our modern technology liberated its self from man and is now rolling as an avalanche down in the pit?
Man can not do
Augustinus stated, that the nature of mankind stands between God and the rest of the Nature, which solely was created by the will of God.
Man has his own will, which stem from his given liberty. A will which in arrogance can lead Man to believe, that he is his own foundation. God is able to create out of noting, "creatio ex nihilo". The human will can not do. It can not even do what it desire. When it thinks it has done something "good" with the right hand, the left hand did not know, what harm it has done.
Man is imperfect in contrast to Nature, whish in its own way is what it is. Man has to figure out, what he is going to be. In this continued process, he has the tendency to fall down to be less, than he can be due to the original sin as the scripture states.
As Augustinus confessed, it was arrogant and dangerous to refuse Gods offer to be a part of His will. To deny the spirit of Man to be one with the spirit of God, means that the spirit of Man is too fond of its self. He commits a treachery against himself, since he denys the chance to reach beyound his own limited foundation.
This was a major break from the way of thinking of the Antiquity. Contrary to Augustine the philosophy of the Antiquity was convinced, that Man could be a goal for its self, and true knowledge was able to change Man to a better being.
"Know yourself" so you know, what you can, and only want, what you are able to do. It was imperative to know ones limits, so one only aspire to what was possible. When the will and the ability to do has the same extent, the limitations creates harmony.
In the time of Socrates the harmony between being and doing still might have had sense.
The modern man does not have such understanding. There is no longer a synchronization between being and doing. His knowledge is far more, than his real being actually can understand. His wishes goes beyond, what he is able to manage, e.g. bloody revolutions fueled by idealistic theories, and he is able to do more than he wants, e.g. ecological disasters and social collapse.
The modern Man is deeply disturbed. First he rejects the transcendence by not aiming for powers above himself, and now he does not even know himself and his limitations.
Communication according to Gregory Bateson
"A priori one can claim, that all perceptions and responses, all categories of behavior, all learning and genetics, all neurology, physiology and endocrinology, all organization and all evolution, can be considered as communication. This broad field can all be subject to the laws of communication."
In fact, it is impossible not to communicate. We are born into the world of communication, we are a part of it willing or unconsciously, and even after our death it continues as legacy.
As mentioned in Information theory, Bateson made use of the mind concept in description of complex cybernetic systems, including the unconscious mind.
Bateson was an anthropologist and his use of mind in complex living systems has nothing to do with the common idea of a "religious" mind in Nature. He did not accept the notion transcendence, as the keen scientist he was, but considered control and self-regulating as a mental aspect, which did not belong to a part of the system, but was inherent in the whole system.
The individual mind, which is immanent in the circuit within and outside the body, is only a subsystem of the supreme mind. This larger mind is not some transcendental deity. It is still immanent in the total interconnected social system or planetary ecology.
It is an entirely self adjusting unity, which "think, act and determine" and the boundaries do not coincide with the organisms or parts involved, but is weaved in or incorporated into the whole system.
For Bateson the mind concept was a description, a model, a map, which should not be confused with the landscape. In science as in daily life the mistake of categories is common.
He liked to rephrase Pascal's expression, "the heart has its own reason which is unknown to the intelligence", to "the heart has its own precise algorithm".
Algorithm is a mathematical recipe for a process or calculation, also used in computer programming. Bateson used this statement to explain the underlying premises for our perception, thinking and acting, which is unable to be captured or understood by the algorithm of the language.
He considered art, music and religion as examples of pre-verbal thinking, a bridge over the gap between consciousness/mind and pre-verbal perception. This immanent supreme deity, which he jocularly called the god, Eco, is permeating man, nature and the universe.
Power of the spoken word
Jesus Christ said: "My words are spirit and they are life and they do accomplish that whereunto they are sent."
Spirit is the creative cause in the Universe and our words are potent only as this same spirit is seen as the operative force behind them. It is the activity of the force of Nature, that makes the seed grow for no seed has power within itself. It is a container or vehicle of that force. So it is with words.
Our consciousness or awareness of Spirit is the focal point in the power of the word.
Idle words are impotent and do not create; though they, in a sense, may add to the state of hypnosis. To fear negative words is to add to their hypnotic energies and thereby adds to the influence of the negative words. The power of ignorant or idle words is only, that they may intensify the hypnotic state of man’s mind, but they do not alter the creative cause in the least.
The power of the negative words is only the modernization of the old idea of the devil, and is a direct violation of the fact, that there is only the power of God.
The "I am" statement
When one begins to assemble in his consciousness the activities of any principle, he begins to say, "I am …" This is the centralizing of the authority of the principle in him. "I am" renders the mind dynamic instead of letting it rest in potentiality. It becomes dynamic the moment we focus thought upon I AM. The focal point is the center always and from it emanates the authoritative commands that control and determine the entire status of the man who is capable of manifesting the actualization of his/her command.
This name "I AM" was God to Moses. It has come down through the ages as "I AM". To the Hindus it is AUM, which means the same. Likewise to the Christians’ "Amen". The Chinese use it as TAU.
Thoughts create our reality
It has been hard for me to conceive the power of thoughts, though many reliable sources through time have expressed so.
An explanation might be, that our thoughts usually are chaotic. They are happening without any real control or focus, whirling around without any consistent direction or deep purpose. It is an army where the soldiers are marching against each other instead of following the direction given by the king. The powerful army cancels itself out!
When I read Baird Spalding books "Life and Teachings of the Masters of the Far East", vol. 1-6, I became quite astonished over what those holy men could do. It surely demonstrated the miraculous potential humans possess.
Anyway, we are unaware of the miraculous power of thought. I guess, we have fallen asleep to it! What we experience is the response to stimuli mainly from the outside world. We call it physical reality and it can be real tough, but mainly it is a subjective reality. Who has not experienced the change of reality by a shift in mood or emotion? One can say, that thoughts works as the mediator or a lens that shape your reality.
Music and sounds that are created from the heart and have the intention to communicate to other hearts, carries emotions about God and is a reminder of the divinity deep inside us. Such music put the brain to "soak" so the daily "noise" is dissolved and give space for deeper emotions and thoughts, so the real self has a chance to be present. This is the meaning of real music.
We are born into this Earth with a limited consciousness and have lost the memory of what we are and from where we come. The Fall of Man as the scriptures tells, has caused a separation from the mighty Creator God.
The purpose with this life is to remember and recreate WHO WE REALLY ARE. We recreate under difficult conditions and heavy laws, by our own choices, that divine being our Father Creator has given to us as our birthright.
Some say that we are Physical Angels, who carry all the elements of the holographic universe within us; we are ONE spirit in ONE body.
Usually we are not aware of our multi - dimensional body, so we feel lost and alone. The freedom to choose between right or wrong is often difficult and we are tempted to blame our Farther for our misery, forgetting that unconditional love give us the sole and exclusive right to choose. Our consciousness is our guide.
The primal vibration
Music contains a secret power, which can shape the mind of man and alter societies or nations. It is a two-edged sword. It can bring us in alignments with God and our deepest, real self or diverge us from the supreme influence of our mighty Creator.
The ancients believed, that music in the hands of the "evil" or ignorant, could only lead the civilization to an inevitable doom, but in the hands of the illumined, music was a tool of beauty and power, which could lead the entire society into a golden age of peace, prosperity and brotherhood.
Even in recent time in Western Europe this belief was expressed. As Andrew Fletcher, the writer and orator, stated in the Scottish Parliament of 1704:
"I knew a very vise man, who believed that if a man were permitted to make all the ballads, he need not care who should make the laws of a nation."
Ancient civilizations were well aware of that power in music and sounds, and took different measures in order to have the musical supreme influence prevail. The ancient Chinese civilization, which mirrored this most vigorously, lasted 5000 years.
The most important task for the Ancient Chinese Emperor was to secure the foundation tone, the huang chang, the musical note which was called Kung. The celestial influence changed in time and the Emperor had the responsibility of tuning the Kung in perfect harmony with the divine energies from Above so the harmony in his country could be maintained.
Every single instrument in China had to be tuned in accordance with the imperial tone. So closely affiliated was the foundation tone, Kung, to the affair of the state, that the standard of weights and measurements was calculated from the sacred pipe. A musical education for the officials was considered as important as the skills for their job.
There are many paths to re-member and re-create oneself and hereby become one with our Creator.
Hence, you too can sing your song to the Uni-verse.
This dissertation has focused on music and sound, which has the potential to open the gate to the multi dimensional realm of man and let the heart sing its song in harmony with the Uni-verse. As you may have noticed, this does not apply to the music, we usually clutter our empty space with.
Copyright © 1998-2005, Thomas Váczy Hightower.
Bicycle wheel and Magneto flux energy
Bicycle wheel and Magneto flux energy
Minato's self-running wheel
"The motor is actuated by moving the N pole of a large
permanet magnet (the drive magnet) toward the wheel. As this magnet is moved
toward the wheel, the wheel starts to spin. As the magnet is moved closer to the
wheel it spins faster.
The acceleration of the wheel is rapid. So rapid in fact, as to be startling. To put it another way I was very impressed. The motor works. And it works very well. In the film clip a slight pumping action of Minato's hand holding the magnet is apparent. When I braced my hand so that there was no pumping action, the motor still ran. In fact it seemed to run better.
Pumping action by the hand held magnet IS NOT the power that drives the motor. When the drive magnet is moved away from the wheel it coasts rather quickly to a stop and comes to rest in a manner typical of any spinning bicycle wheel.
Again when the wheel is at rest and a large magnet is moved up to the wheel it starts to spin. At no time is it necessary to touch the wheel to get it to rotate.
This is a picture of the a magnetic wheel that that the man at coral castle built
Go there and see it.
Everyone seems to not even notice it there and it's the main component of all his work.
Stonehenge magnetic wheel
Howard Johnson's 'Stonehenge Motor'
1 2 3 as simple as this
Use Multiversal magnetic flux to move the wheel,
transform spinnig motion into electrical waves
produce resonant vibrations to lift and fly matter.
The Association of Professional Music Therapists
Was formed in 1976 with the purpose of fulfilling the needs of qualified music therapists in Great Britain. The APMT acts as a protective body to music therapists already in work, and assists in the creation of new posts. It also promotes the exchange of information between music therapists, both in Britain and abroad.
Mrs Diana Asbridge,
38 Pierce Lane,
Tel: 01223 880 377
This sound therapy was discovered and developed by Sharry Edwards. It uses voice spectral analysis to identify and interpret frequency interactions within the body. Specifically, the voice is tested for pitch, octaves and notes that are missing, non-harmonious, multiplied or broken. These particular notes in the form of low frequencies are then returned to the person's environment using a frequency generator. The missing frequencies are those needed to restore the body's health. Sharry believes that there is a correlation between atomic weights, the orbit of planets, musical scale and brainwaves.
P.O. Box 416,
Tel: 740 592 5115/ Fax: 740 592 6116
Elaine Thompson/Robert Firkin,
32 St Anne's Drive,
Tel: 01779 148 683/ Fax: 01179 873 924
The British Society for Music Therapy
Was founded in 1958 by Juliette Alvin. Its aims include the promotion of the use and development of Music Therapy. It organises conferences, workshops and meetings, and is a centre of information. Its membership is open to all whose vocational activities enable them to further the objects of the Society and there is a student membership at reduced rate for full-time students.
Mrs Denize Christophers,
25 Rosslyn Avenue,
Tel/Fax: 020 8368 8879
Caduceus Sound Healing Conference
The journal Caduceus has taken a specific interest in the subject of sound healing. In 1999 it presented the first conference in the UK on healing with sound and music. Many of its issues contain articles on the subject. Caduceus has produced a Sound Healing Resource Guide and a Guide to Overtone Singing, both available from:
38 Russell Terrace,
Tel: 01926 451 897/ Fax: 01926 885 565
David Hykes is known world-wide for his work with the Harmonic Choir which has provided music for films as well as for albums and concerts. He runs courses in overtone singing in the Paris area. "The courses are for musicians and others who want to expand their musical vision.... working with harmonics is not about acquiring a technique, but rather about contacting the essential in musical expression".
Tel: + 33 254 72 82 10/ Fax: + 33 254 72 82 12
An independent arts charity which promotes international and intercultural understanding through the arrangement of cultural projects, research studies, conferences and exchanges. Organised the Music Village festivals in 1999 and the Millennium Festival in 2000 - the themes being Sacred Voices with a strong emphasis on the healing power of the voice. To join their Free Mailing List contact:
2000 Music Village,
c/o Cultural Co-operation,
28 Commercial Street,
London E1 6LS,
Fax: 0207 456 0401
Developed out of the research of the Swiss scientist Hans Jenny, who demonstrated that vibration has the power to shape matter. Cymatics (meaning 'wave forms'), is based on the principle that every cell, organ, muscle and tissue resonates at its own particular frequency, and that when any of these lose their correct rate of vibration, illnesses and diseases will result.
Cymatics foremost practitioner Dr Manners has calculated frequencies for particular ailments including problems at the mental level. Through the use of his specially designed Cymatic instrument frequencies matching those of the person's normal physical aspects are fed into the body.
Through the principle of resonance, the part of the body being treated will return to the correct frequency rate and thus to restored health.
Dr Peter Guy Manners,
The Bretforton Scientific & Medical Research Trust,
Bretforton Hall Clinic,
Tel: 01386 830 537/ Fax: 01386 830 918
Created and developed by Harry Oldfield, electro-crystal therapy is a method of diagnosis and treatment involving crystals, minerals and gems that are electronically stimulated by various pulse repetition rates. The combination of pulsed high-frequency vibrations and crystals increases the range of healing. There has been a good success rate in treating many disorders such as multiple sclerosis.
The School of Electro-Crystal Therapy,
117 Long Drive,
Tel/Fax: 0208 8411716
Georgian Harmony Singing Association
Established to introduce the ancient and beautiful harmony singing tradition of Georgia. The association plans workshops and concerts, a newsletter and a UK based choir and to arrange musicological study tours of Georgia.
5 Alder Lodge,
292 Bury Street West,
London N9 9LL,
Tel: 020 8360 9991
The Centre for Performance Research have been organising the 'Giving Voice' festivals since 1990, bringing together singers from different cultural and spiritual traditions. The festivals take place in Aberystwyth and involve workshops, lecture-demonstrations, performances, films and discussion. "Our philosophy has been that the human voice is a vital means of creative expressions and communication, as diverse and subtle as all the peoples on the earth and each individual upon it".
Centre for Performance Research,
8 Science Park,
Tel: 01970 622 133/ Fax: 01970 622 132
Resonant Vibration Department Research - Music Therapy Research -